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Education : Second Thoughts Newsletters : Complete text of all the Second Thoughts Newsletters Last Updated: Sep 8th, 2009 - 08:07:52

Second Thoughts Vol. 4, No. 1, October 1981

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VOL. 4, NO. 1, OCTOBER 1981

Second Thoughts

In this issue:
-- Freire Returns to Brazil
-- Progressive Editor Speaks to Scholars
-- Twin Streams Flow in South
-- A Professor Quits
-- Sexism in Graduate Programs
-- Illich Takes on Sex & Gender
-- Bay Integrates Illich & Freire?


If you're going to the 1981 National Adult Education Conference at Disneyland mark your calendar for Friday, October 30th at 10:30 am in Room 2 at the Hotel Disneyland. The Task Force on Voluntary Learning of the Adult Education Association will present a workshop, open to all, on Research Directions in MCE (mandatory continuing education).

Estlle Davison-Crews (Kansas State University) and Jill Gurlach (Norwood, MA) will present a "Survey of MCE Legislation for Nurses."

Also invited are Lila Neese (Florida State University) on "The Continuing Education Unit (CEU) As a Form of Social Control" and Mary Elaine Kiener (University of Wisconsin) on "Should the MCE Issue Be Settled by the Courts?"

Chairing the session will be Dave Williams (Kansas State University). We asked Dave, a much-traveled professor of adult education, whether he thinks the upcoming merger between AEA and NAPCAE will have any effect on MCE:

"I don't think so, but I'm ambivalent about the merger anyway. Like most national organizations AEA doesn't render much of a service, so I don't see that the merger will help. I'm surprised that there is so little reaction one way or the other.”

Other meetings of interest during the conference at Hotel Disneyland include a presentation on "Visual Literacy Theory & Adult Learning" with Dave Gueulette (Northern Illinois University), Mike Collins, and John Hortin (both of Kansas State University), Thursday, October 29th at 8:45 am in the Cherritos Room; and a panel on International Issues in Distance Education on the same day at 3:45 pm in Embassy East I.

John Ohliger of Basic Choices will also be at the Disneyland conference and would like to meet with any interested Second Thoughts readers. Contact John (before, during and after the conference thru November 5th) thru his mother (Aura Ohliger, 5833B Greenleaf, Whittier, CA 90601, telephone (213) 693-7317).


After 15 years of exile—in Bolivia, Chile, the U.S. and Switzerland—Paulo Freire, one of the most creative educators in adult literacy work, has recently been permitted to return to Brazil. Freire now holds a position of professor of education in the Catholic University in Sao Paulo.

Several of us at Basic Choices have had opportunities to meet with and learn from Freire. We also have an extensive collection of materials by or about Freire. We share the following excerpts from an interview published in the March, 1981 issue of Third World:

How do you appraise your exile years?

I have lived them intensely and they've enriched me. The World Council of Churches in Geneva, for which I've been educational consultant since 1970, gave me the opportunity to travel all over and get to know the world. I return with the humble conviction that exile hasn't given me the right to teach Brazil but the opportunity to know my country better. I think this should be the attitude of any exile with common sense. Brazil didn't stop while we were away, and we exiles are back home to learn everything over again, even how to cross a street.

How have the theories of Paulo Freire evolved in exile?

Well, the man I was in 1964, the flat headed northeasterner with a taste for warm seawater still exists inside me, but there's also the Paulo Freire of 1980. Life in exile was a big school, and when people disparage me as something stagnant, it really amazes me. For example, when they criticize me on the basis of certain na?vet? in my early books, as if I were stuck somewhere back in history, I find it funny. I'm the first to take new looks at myself.

The apprenticeship process has brought out for me what is obvious but not explicit in my first books -- the truly political nature of education. I think that's the difference between the more or less ingenuous Freire of 1963-64 and the more or less critical Freire of 1980.

New Freire Materials

Among the material we gather are accounts by those applying insights drawn from Freire in various contexts other than adult literacy. We cite two examples. Merrill Ewert (see his letter in this issue of ST) has written on "Proverbs, Parables and Metaphors: Applying Freire's Concept of Codification to Africa" published in Convergence, Volume XIV, No. 1, 1981. Ewert discusses the use of proverbs and stories in a Mennonite community development program in rural Zaire during the 1970's. These verbal materials which contrasted with the primary reliance on pictures and drawings in Freire's Brazilian literacy campaigns, were useful as "codifications". That is, they helped participants conceptualize community problems and "visualize" their perceptions both of themselves and of their relations to the program's leaders.

Dr. James Gustafson, a professor of psychiatry in the University of Wisconsin's Department of Psychiatry, has shared with us a paper coauthored with Lowell Cooper on "Over-Accommodation." This unpublished paper focuses on the small group as a context in which participants can become relatively freed from the prevailing culture of "operationalism' (Marcuse). This occurs when subgroups become conscious of the ways in which we are manipulated by such working conditions as the over-specification of "what we are supposed to do," speedup, largeness or outright coercion. This consciousness, which occurs through the group's struggle over its working conditions (and the roles of the leaders in the group), is akin to the conscientization process in Freire's literacy "circles of culture." It is a means by which "individuals and groups might retain their own expressiveness and capability for political action." Copies of the paper are available from the author at the Dept. of Psychiatry, Clinical Sciences Center, 600 Highland Ave., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792

"I'm not a teacher: only a fellow-traveler of whom you asked the way. I pointed ahead–ahead of myself as well as of you." George Bernard Shaw in Getting Married.


As reported in the last issue, Basic Choices has been fostering a Community Scholars' Roundtable based in part on the approach to Independent Scholarship promoted by Ron Gross.

The most recent gathering of the Roundtable featured a talk by Erwin Knoll, Editor of The Progressive, the magazine censored by the federal government for its attempt to point out there is no secret to the H-Bomb.

Erwin presented a rousing talk followed by intense discussion on the theme "Independent Scholarship, Research, and Writing for Social Change." A cassette tape of it is available from us for $5.00 including postage.

Here are a few "juicy quotes:

"Half of the unsolicited manuscripts that we receive are from academics. Most of them are wholly unsuitable to our magazine. The papers are characterized by jargon, obfuscation, and vagueness. Academic educationists and social scientists are the greatest offenders. Illiteracy is a much more acute problem among academics than among working class people. Their writing is turgid and impenetrable.

"There are several basic reasons. One is the effort to seem to be saying something without really saying something. In that effort you get a lot of convoluted verbiage and attempts to say deep serious things without being pinned down to anything very specific.

"(Second) is a kind of inbreeding that in fests any discipline where people talk primarily to each other and not to the real world and therefore develop a language of their own, which becomes more and more esoteric, more and more specialized.

"(Third) is the attempt to create and sustain the mystification that is characteristic of almost any priesthood -- the notion that we are on to something that the rest of you folks can't understand. We are the keepers of your secrets, trust us to know them, perpetuate them and interpret them for your benefit as may be necessary from time to time, but don't ask us to divulge them. That's characteristic of many academic endeavors. And this notion of having a body of lore that cannot be fully shared with the uninitiated is combined with the notion that if you're a scholar you're supposed to publish. There's a contradiction there. And that contradiction is often resolved by publishing something that actually conveys no sense, no meaning, no content of any kind.

"There is another kind of manuscript we get a lot of articles proving the successful development of a perpetual motion machine. These are the people who have stumbled across a truth that has somehow eluded everybody else. The title or the lead paragraph of
these papers often contains the word 'only.' How (for instance) abolishing the Federal Reserve System is the only way to rescue our economy. I have no particular problem with abolishing the Federal Reserve System except for the notion that it is the only cure. That kind of eccentricity seems to be favored by people who work independently, who work alone.

"These are people who are wholly indifferent to whether anyone will respond to their particular programs. I regard this as a characteristic of loners, of independent scholars or activists, rather than of people who have the benefit of meeting in the community in groups in ways in which they contest their ideas and bounce them off each other.

"We have a desperate need to communicate with each other, to share ideas, to try to work together by means of thought, among other ways, to alleviate the pain that is the human condition. People are far more articulate, far more concerned, far more capable of communicating when they speak to each other, than when they try to put some thing on paper. This is, in part, a colossal failure of our schools, in part, a cultural phenomenon that I can't understand but only deplore. There are severe limits on how many of us can talk to each other directly, face to face. The opportunities for communicating need to be on a much more massive scale in a world of some four billion people. Yet we seem to be inarticulate, tongue-tied, incapable of communicating with each other on a mass basis in any way that makes much sense.

"I'm delighted to have this kind of an effort in Madison. It addresses that problem. But it's a tiny bit of a solution to a difficulty that seems to be monstrous and getting worse all the time."

During the long question period Knoll was asked to clarify why he implied that independent scholars are lunatics because of their lack of conversation with others:

"I would not use the word 'lunatic' in that context. I said 'eccentric.' 'Lunatic' is a word I reserve for people like the Joint Chiefs of Staff, members of Congress, the President's cabinet, etc. I don't want to suggest that there is any kind of magic in scholarly dialogue. I do want to suggest that there are perils in working in isolation, not in isolation from recognized scholars, but in isolation from people where you can have the benefit of just bouncing ideas off other people and having them respond. That's immensely valuable. Don't look for expertise on that...I hope that the term 'independent scholar' would rarely be construed to mean 'scholar working in isolation.'"

If you aren't reading The Progressive, a very good example of community scholarship at work for healthy social change, write Erwin Knoll soon at 409 East Main Street, Madison, WI 53706. He'll send you information about the magazine and maybe even a sample copy, especially if you send him $1.50, the price of a single controversy packed issue.

For more information on independent scholarship write Ron Gross at 17 Myrtle Drive, Great Neck, NY 11021.


Twin Streams, a recent group involved in "adult residential education for democratic social change,” is now seeking national support and engagement. Located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina (243 Flemington Rd., Chapel Hill, NC 27514 (919) 929-3316), Twin Streams has just published a "Statement of Purpose" from which we quote:

"The first priority for Twin Streams is to provide opportunities for groups to meet, share their common concerns, and begin the process of engaging in organizing and community problem solving...

"The name Twin Streams was chosen to reflect the philosophy of the folk school -- that of providing opportunities for groups of people to participate in a residential experience and through this experience develop a continuing relationship within an extended community of 'kindred spirits.'...

"Highlander Folk School in New Market, TN, serves as a successful model for this educational style."

Frank Adams, former President of Highlander, is on the Twin Streams Board of Directors and is heavily involved along with other Highlander folks.

Activities planned for the near future include workshops on fundraising for grass roots groups and on worker owned industries.

Twin Streams needs and deserves your help and involvement. For further information contact Wes Hare, President, at the above address.


Until very recently Merrill Ewert was a professor of adult education at the University of Maryland. In July we received this letter from him:

"Enclosed you will find my check for $10 to renew my subscription to Second Thoughts. It's the only publication that I read from cover to cover - and think about very long. Keep up the good work."

Merrill's letter was on stationery from MAP International, P.O. Box 50, Wheaton, IL 60187. So when we wrote to thank him for his check, we asked him what happened. He replied:

"You asked what I was doing in Wheaton. It's a long and rather involved story but your question deserves an answer.

"It all started at a professional meeting when a colleague from another university turned to me and said, 'Merrill, Merrill. What are we going to have to do with you?'

"I had just explained how I had spent the proceeding months since the two of us had last talked together. My list of activities included a number of things; assisting in the orientation of people preparing for overseas service with voluntary organizations, leading a series of seminars for adult basic education teachers on recruiting disadvantaged learners, helping to start an 'idea exchange' for adult educators working in the field, identifying resources for teachers involved in community education programs abroad, serving as an unpaid consultant to several rural development projects in Africa and doing a lot of thinking about the role of private voluntary organizations in social change, both here and in the Third World.

"With a shake of his head, my colleague sadly asked, 'Why do you waste your time on that kind of stuff? You are never going to get tenure this way. You should concentrate on your research and writing if you ever expect to get tenure.'

"I thought about it and agreed. I also asked myself what I was doing in an educational institution that views responding to human needs as a distraction from its basic task. This was particularly ironic because I had been involved professionally in my own field of adult education!

"Carefully schooled in the tripartite mandate of the university-teaching, research and service-I noticed that few people were rewarded for teaching and none for service. I saw students viewed as an intrusion into the real business of the institution; research and writing. I could feel myself falling into that trap as well, given the reward system under which professors work at the university level. Service was just a joke at the staff meetings. No wonder the constituents of many universities, the taxpayers, think they are being ripped off.

"A session of the Commission of Professors meetings at the National Adult Education Conference was also rather significant in helping me think through my own career aspirations. A senior professor sitting next to me interrupted a long, complicated and esoteric discourse on a relatively minor methodological point on a research report with the words 'Bullshit!' The startled presenter asked, 'What is bullshit?' My colleague replied, 'All of it!' I agreed. In fact, I had earlier stifled the urge to make a similar observation but Assistant Professors don't do that sort of thing, you know. The discussion that followed generated the consensus that the research question, while of some theoretical interest to a few professors, would not make any difference to people practicing adult education in the field.

"My questions about adult education priorities in the university were further sharpened while attending the 1981 Adult Education Research Conference. I noticed that sessions on continuing professional education were packed. Presentations dealing with adult basic education ranged from 15 to 20 people in attendance while papers relating to Third World problems sometimes had less than ten people coming to listen. If that is not a clear statement regarding our priorities, I don't know what is.

"Another interesting experience as an adult education professor came when several potential graduate students in succession came to see me about our program, asking essentially the same question; 'How can I get a graduate degree from this university as painlessly as possible?' The motivations for enrolling in our graduate program ranged from holding on to a job with the Cooperative Extension Service to getting promotions and salary increases. I have nothing against keeping one's job or getting a promotion but I question whether graduate programs undertaken with these motivations really equip anyone to do a better job....

"Teaching graduate students was the most rewarding and fulfilling part of my experience at the university. There were some good students, deeply-committed to dealing educationally with the problems of society. However, I noticed that graduate programs in adult education are proliferating almost exponentially each one more flexible, more 'relevant', more experientially based, more eager to serve the 'needs of its clientele. I see graduate education becoming vocational education in our field. While I am not against learning what is 'practical,' sooner or later we are going to have to face up to the issue of what constitutes graduate education.

"The other trap that I see in adult education curriculae at the university level is that demands are being created to meet needs that may not exist. Professors in graduate programs spend a lot of time thinking about marketing—their departments, their courses, their projects, their research, etc. Decisions about courses are increasingly made on the basis of which ones can generate enough bodies to fill the classroom. This is a rather clear example of letting the tail wag the dog.

"It also accelerates the rate at which graduate programs in adult education are be coming society's credentialers. That worries me. Students in my 'Models of Non-formal Education' seminar used to delight in reminding me that for someone who supposedly believes in non-formal education, I. was spending, my own time in a schooling context that negated most of the principles in which I supposedly believed.

"I thoroughly enjoyed my time in the university. However, my Christian worldview led me to think about other issues—wealth and poverty, dependence and self-reliance, peace and justice. Taking them seriously appeared to be outside the parameters of adult education as practiced in the university community. When is the last time that you saw a research project that dealt with one of these topics?

"What am I doing here, you asked? When I saw that my job was getting in the way of what I thought was important in life, it be came time to consider some alternatives. I think that I have found them.

"I am presently serving as director of non-formal education for a Christian relief and development organization. MAP is involved in primary health care projects around the world; providing program development advisory services, organizing workshops on community health for project leaders and village level health workers, and helping existing health care agencies move from curative medicine to promoting health through education at the community level."

When Merrill gave us his permission to print his letter he added this postscript:

"Several young, assistant professors in other departments at the University of Maryland asked me about my decision to leave the university. When I gave my reasons, they started to share their feelings about the same kinds of issues. One of them, expressed his frustration with the fact that we had not been able to share these concerns earlier. 'I don't dare raise these issues in my department,' he said, 'or I will be labeled a "troublemaker" and never get tenure.' He's right, of course."


This fall a friend of ours began as a student in a doctoral program in adult education. After a short time with the department she decided to write an open letter to the faculty which we reprint below. We are making it an anonymous letter and leaving out the name of the university because we feel what she writes about may be typical of many campuses and do not wish to embarrass her professors:

"Choose your battles." That is what I have been told by my friends and mentors. After careful assessment and with some trepidation I believe the present situation in the department needs to be addressed.

The issue is the use of sexist language and display of sexist behavior within the department by the professional staff. I am very concerned about the matter and would like to share with you some of my experiences thus far in the department.

First of all, when I was interviewed by long distance phone this summer I was told that my vita "didn't say much about me personally" (i.e. did not give age or marital status) but that I, "had a nice voice." I find it hard to believe that a prospective male doctoral student would have been told the same thing.

On my first day here a department professor addressed me as the "gal from Wisconsin." When I said I was not the "gal" from Wisconsin he said, "Oh, the lady from Wisconsin." I said "No, try again," and he said, "What else could you be?”

On the first day of one of my classes an example was given by the professor to clarify one of the differences in perception of time between adults and children. He said, " a 38 year old woman who hasn't had her first date is going to get worried." (laughter) Why is it that women must be the brunt of these types of sexist jokes?

In another class we were told we would learn more about man and how he relates to societal change.

The introduction of a syllabus for another class offers this wisdom: "Since man began to use his superior cerebral powers he has considered 'the proper study of mankind to be man himself.'"

I think there needs to be an open discussion about what appears to be departmental norms. I don't mean to suggest that the above examples were intentional or malicious in any way. Basically, just a little consciousness-raising has to be done. Through this process I hope that some attitudinal changes occur resulting in revisions of class lectures, course syllabi, and other class handouts. (I have included a copy of guidelines for quick editing of written materials.)

[The guidelines referred to above are "Guidelines for Nonsexist Language" appearing in American Psychologist for June 1977, pp. 489-93. They also appear, along with some helpful suggestions for further reading, in Resources for Writing for Publication in Education by Sidney Katz and others. (NY Teachers College Press, 1980).]

The research done in the area of language by linguists, social scientists, and educators supports the belief that language is the inescapable socializer. Further, as Lerner points out in the enclosed piece on language choice, the unconscious attitudes that underlie the choice of a word are the real issues. As I mentioned before, language choice or even behavior patterns are not always intentional but that does not absolve them from being value-laden.

[The piece on language is "Girls, Ladies, or Women? The Unconscious Dynamics of Language Choice" by Harriet E. Lerner appearing in Comprehensive Psychiatry for March/April ]1976, pp. 295-299.]

Another point that I would like to make is that the masculine pronoun as a generic pronoun has almost vanished from current forms of print and non-print media. McGraw Hill and Scott, Foresman adopted nonsexist guidelines in the early 70's and most publishers have now followed suit. News broadcasting has adopted these basic guidelines as standard operating procedures as well. This is not to say that we don't all make a slip once in awhile but generally there is a nationwide commitment to eliminating sexist language.

I sincerely hope that it will be generally agreed in the department that nonsexist behavior is the norm and that the use of inclusive language is desirable.

As Oscar Wilde might have said: "[A learning] experience is the name we give to our mxstbke mist/ our mistakes."


Every once in a while reviewers of Illich's work make snide references to potential sexual implications of some of the terms he uses, for instance, "tools" in Tools for Conviviality. It will be interesting to see what critics make of his latest work Vernacular Gender when it is formally published soon. At the moment it is only available in draft form. If we understand the terms set forth by his associate Valentina Borremans in Tecno-politica Doc. .07.81 we can make it available to readers on a noncommercial basis as long as we get no more than 250 requests. We will send it on that basis to you if you pay the actual cost of xeroxing 60 pages ($3.00) plus postage for sending an eight-ounce item. The terms prohibit us from excerpting the text, but it is a sequel to Shadow Work reviewed in the last issue and has four major sections: (1) Sexism & Economic Growth; (2) Economic Sex; (3) Vernacular Gender; and (4) The Economic Neuter and Scarcity.

Items with major references to Illich's work continue to pour in to our material center. Two of the most interesting are: (1) "Nine Theses for a Future Left," by Andre Gorz (Telos, Summer 1981) sent us by Carl Kedman; and (2)"Privileged Access: Who Shall Know?" by Janet Freedman (Social Policy, March/April 1978) sent us by Dave Williams.


By John Ohliger

I've been collecting materials by and about Ivan Illich and Paulo Freire for more than twelve years. Just recently I ran across a book that may for the first time success fully integrate their somewhat disparate points of view. It is Strategies of Political Emancipation by Christian Bay (Notre Dame, IN 36556: University of Notre Dame Press, 1981).

Bay relies heavily on Freire in developing what he calls "the pedagogy of political emancipation," and on Illich for an approach that might lead to "wider awareness of and resistance to professional domination."

But Bay's book may accomplish far more than integrating Illich and Freire. First, he contends that liberal views divorce the concept of liberty from basic human needs thus supporting "the democratic make-believe" in the Western world that legitimizes the privileges of power held by current elites. Then he boldly states what he believes the basic human needs are and connects them with an activist concept of freedom.

I highly recommend this bracing book for study and discussion by adult educators. At the very least it will clear the air, if not your sinuses as well, of the phlegm of "needs assessments."


We have received two comments on the excerpt from John Ohliger's speech "If Learning Never Ends, Does Living Ever Begin?" in the July issue.

Phil Newton writes: "...a real gem, one of the most enjoyable pieces of his I've seen."

The second comes from Jan Becker. John wrote an article seven years ago on Jan's difficulties with the medical establishment in having her first baby at home ("Some Thoughts on Nursing Inservice Education," Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, July/August 1974, pp. 1927). Since then she has had three more babies at home on a farm in western Wisconsin. Jan writes:

"I just read your article from the July issue and felt the need to share with you some of my own "yada". My focus lately has been on our new baby, Meghan, born Friday, July 26, 1:30 A.M.!! She balances out our three boys very well considering her size! She has us all spellbound periodically. What can I say? It's not that simple...I want to tell you that I learned to give birth since I saw you last. I learned so much during the pregnancy that I can't 'regurgitate, or measure objectively'. I learned through a hundred dreams and 500 fears and 1000 conversations with loving friends. I retraced my journey through madness and came out of it able to love, able to give birth in a totally open, aware and joyful way. John, I submitted to giving birth to our first son; I participated, initiated the birth of our first daughter. I was victimized by the forces of nature the first time. I was proud to be united with nature this last time.

"Men have their war stories... I glory in my birth stories! This was the first time I did not need to shut everyone else out in order to get through the pain. John (her husband) was the only one present when Ben and Tom were born and I felt utterly abandoned. I didn't admit that I was as responsible as John for the feeling. I instinctively shut people out when the going got rough. This is what I learned not to do during this last pregnancy. I write you things I've never thought before, much less said."


Allen Tough writes: "Your newsletter gets better and better all the time. Reading a recent issue, I suddenly realized I may never have drawn certain theses to your attention that support your case (against MCE). They show that professionals already are doing plenty of professionally-related learning without MCE or credit."

Allen includes the Epilogue from the 2nd edition of his book The Adult's Learning Projects dealing with "Research through the 70's." He called our attention especially to four doctoral or masters theses pointing out the self-directed learning activities of teachers, pharmacists, and professionals in general.

If you don't have a copy of Allen's book in its latest edition, write him at OISE, 252 Bloor St. W., Toronto, Canada M5S 1V6 for information on how to obtain it.


The sixth annual catalog of the transnational Alternative Free-Neighborhood University is now in preparation. Any worthwhile alternative learning project will be listed in this useful catalog without cost no matter what country you're from. The deadline for receipt of listings is December 15, 1981.

Send listings or write for further information to Bernhard Suin de Boutemard, Freie Nachbarschaftsgesellschaft, 6145 Lindenfels I/ Odenwald, West Germany.

Second Thoughts is a newsletter designed to raise fundamental questions about the meaning of education. How can education enhance human freedom and participation? Expand the frontiers of individual and collective research and action on matters of substance? Contribute to a more just and democratic society?

Second Thoughts serves a network of persons raising basic questions about mandatory continuing education (MCE), professionalization, and other issues related to social control.

It is published by Basic Choices, a project in values clarification of Madison Campus Ministry, 731 State St., Madison, WI 53703. Members of the group are John Hill, Vince Kavaloski, David Lisman, Art Lloyd, Sue Lloyd, Mark McFadden, John Ohliger, Vern Visick and Chris Wagner.

For the newsletter to continue we need your suggestions, criticisms, articles, subscriptions, and tax deductible contributions. The address for Second Thoughts is 1121 University Ave., Madison, WI 53715. Telephone: (608) 256-1946.

Our thanks to the following for help on Vol. 4, No. 1: Lydia Haynes, Beth Horning of Newsletter Press, Shari Lamb, Sharon Lewandowski, Glenda Nadeau, and Linda Neff.


The Illinois Adult & Continuing Educators Association has recently published a whole issue of their journal (Setting the Pace, Vol. 1, No. 3) taking a critical look at the trend toward the professionalization of adult education. It's very much worth reading; Tom Heaney, edited it, and Doe Hentschel, Opal Easter, Leslie Rothaus, John Doxey, Tom Kalmar, and Irene Carr wrote. $3.00 from PO Box 2095, Springfield, IL 62705.


K. Patricia Cross is the "Distinguished Research Scientist at the Educational Testing Service in Berkeley" according to the dust jacket on her new Jossey-Bass book Adults as Learners.

In her second chapter Cross writes of the "rising concern about blanket legislation that would require continuing education [MCE] in the professions" and then notes:

"The organized opposition comes largely from adult educators, who presumably have the most to gain from such legislation. The controversy over MCE emerged dramatically at the 1977 National Adult Education Conference, when a rump session of adult educators convened ... ."

That session was organized by Basic Choices. Cross then cites J. Roby Kidd, articles in Adult & Continuing Education Today, an article two of our members wrote for Progressive magazine ("Must We All Go Back To School?" Oct. 1978), and the National Alliance for Voluntary Learning (NAVL) which grew out of the Highlander conference we sponsored.

© Copyright 2004 John

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Second Thoughts Vol. 1 No. 1 May 1978
Second Thoughts Vol. 1, No. 2, November, 1978
Second Thoughts Vol. 2, No. 1, April 7, 1979
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Second Thoughts Vol. 2, No. 3, April 1980
Second Thoughts Vol. 3, No. 1, October 1980
Second Thoughts Vol. 3, No. 2, February 1981
Second Thoughts Vol. 3, No. 3, July 1981
Second Thoughts Vol. 4, No. 1, October 1981
Second Thoughts Vol. 4, No. 2, January 1982