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ACET (Adult and Continuing Education Today) : Selected Articles by John Ohliger Last Updated: Sep 8th, 2009 - 08:07:52

Education Summit Lacks Conviction

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Education Summit Lacks Conviction
by John Ohliger

"Hard experience teaches us that we are simply not getting our money's worth in education," said President Bush at the recent Education Summit he convened. It was only the third summit of state governors in the history of this nation. NEC News reported that this one was called to deal with "our decaying education system."

The results of this summit at which learning was once more declared all-im-portant? Even the editor of the mild Christian Science Monitor char-acterized it as just one more in a current series of "faked political events." The editor added that the summit's "rhetoric lacked the carry-ing power of conviction," and conclud-ed: "Given the past week's events, if there is to be an American education-reform movement, it will likely be led from the foot of the hill, from outside government." Following is a first draft of a manifesto for such a movement:

First, it's vital to recognize that education or learning is not all-important. Those who see education as almighty important are tied to a narrow scientific view of knowledge as illumination or enlightenment.

Education is, however, one of life's fundamental energy domains that needs the analogue of conservation to survive, just as our fragile earth and its environ-ment need conservation. Recognizing the ecological community in the world of nature helps us to work toward the holistic human community. Education in the best and more modest sense is a part of that holistic human community. The ecological community gives us the example for the human community.

Learning Must Be Nurtured

Learning is a delicate but durable plant. It should be nurtured respectful-ly, tenderly and with a warm sense of humor. But today, sledge hammer ap-proaches in our schools, universities and adult programs are destroying the real but limited value of education, learning, knowledge and truth itself.

What we're faced with today is a su-perstitious belief in education as the panacea for all our ills. But none of these education programs are solving the social ills for which they've been prescribed. The tough question is: Why do we have this pervasive superstition? And the even tougher question: Can we find ways of getting beyond this harm-ful belief that will be equalitarian, democratic and spiritually honorable?

Any program for educational reform must take into consideration the whole interconnected educational system in-cluding higher and adult education. Es-pecially now that adult education com-mands more dollars and personnel than elementary, secondary and higher edu-cation combined.

The great Lewis Mumford says: "If anything can arrest the total disintegra-tion of world civilization today it will come through a miracle: the recovery of the human scale." The time is long since past when we should restore that human scale to education. Let us begin.

I'm very interested in getting your comments, criticisms and suggestions on the above first draft of a manifesto on education-reform. Send them to Ba-sic Choices. If you want a 30 page version with full annotations for the 100 item bibliography, also send $5. Ask for "The Ecology of Education." Ohliger is director of Basic Choices.

The Ecology of Education Endnote Table of Contents

No. Page Authors

1 02 Ingwerson
2 02 Cattani
3 02 Davis
4 02 Anonymous, Chesterton
03 Ohliger
04 Pannikkar
5 04 “Global Back-to-Basics”

6 04 Anonymous
05 Merchant, Rifkin
07 Burich

7 07 Anderson, Frost, Illich, Parris

8 08 Adams, Burrow
09 Cheng
10 Coates, Devall
11 Foster
12 Fowles, Gilman, Goldsmith
13 Goldsmith, Hill, Jackson
15 Luke, Martin, McKibben
16 Owen, Richter, Sale
17 Seamon, Schuler, Sylvan
18 Urdang

9 18 Anonymous, Eliot, Ohliger, Pedley
19 VandenBroeck, Ziegler

10 19 Bash, Beder
20 Committee of Inquiry, Conrad, Ehrenreich
21 Hoinacki
22 Hook, Illich, “Infoglut”
23 “Infoglut Responses,” Leacock, Marchand, Modra
24 Mumord, Narr, Ohliger, Ohliger
25 Ohliger, Popkewitz, Satin
26 Shaw, Sullivan, Wagoner, Widmer

11 26 Blumberg

12 27 Watson, World Commission on Environment & Development

13 27 Karlenzig

14 27 Crawford, Eisler, Heilbrun

15 28 Friedrich, Martin, Ohliger
29 Ohliger, Rifkin, Stone

16 29 Domaingue
30 Fischer
31 Illich
32 Lee
33 Martin, Recer, Sullivan

17 33 Draves, “Giant Classroom”
34 Merriam/Cunningham, Ohliger, Ohliger

18 34 Mumford


by John Ohliger

[Revised from the November 20, 1989 issue of Adult & Continuing Education Today

"Hard experience teaches us that we are sunply not getting our money's worth in education," said President Bush as he convened the recent Education Summit. It was only the third summit of state governors in the history of this nation [1]. NEC News reported that this one was called to deal with "our decaying education system."
The results of this summit at which learning was once more declared all-important? Even the editor of the mild Christian Science Monitor characterized it as just one more in a current series of "faked political events." The editor added that the summit's "rhetoric lacked the carrying power of conviction," and concluded: "Given the past week's events, if there is to be an American education-reform movement, it will likely be led from the foot of the hill, from outside government [2]." Following is a first draft of a "manifesto" for such a movement [3] :
First, it's vital to recognize that education or learning is not all-important. Those who see education as almighty important are tied to a narrow scientistic view of knowledge as illumination or enlightenment [4]. Those seeing education this way sometimes hedge their bets, as President Bush does, with budgetary concerns, but the bandwagon rhetoric and insistent lip service makes their all-encompassing instructional agenda clear [5].

Education is, however, one of life's fundamental energy domains that needs the analogue of conservation to survive, just as our fragile earth and its environment need conservation [6]. Recognizing the ecological community in the world of nature helps us to work toward the holistic human community [7]. Education in the best and more modest sense is a part of that community. The ecological community gives us the example for the human community [8].

Learning is a delicate but durable plant. It should be nurtured respectfully, tenderly, and with a warm sense of humor [9]. But today, sledge hammer approaches in our schools, universities, and adult programs are destroying the real but limited value of education, learning, knowledge, and truth itself [10].

What we're faced with today is a superstitious belief in education as the panacea for all our ills [11]. But none — none of these education programs are solving the social ills for which they've been prescribed [12]. The tough question is: Why do we have this pervasive superstition [13]? And the even tougher question: Can we find ways of getting beyond this harmful belief that will be equalitarian [14], democratic [15], and spiritually honorable [16]?

Any program for educational reform must take into consideration the whole interconnected educational system including higher and adult education. Especially now that adult education commands more dollars and personnel than elementary, secondary, and higher education combined [17].

The great Lewis Mumford says: "If anything can arrest the total disintegration of world civilization today it will come through a miracle: the recovery of the human scale [18]." The time is long since past when we should restore that human scale to education. Let us begin.
I'm very interested in getting your comments, criticisms, and suggestions on the above first draft of a manifesto on education-reform. Send them to Basic Choices. If you want a 36 page version with full annotations for the 100 item bibliography, also send five dollars. Ask for "The Ecology of Education."

1. Ingwerson, Marshall (1989). "Education Summit: Bush, Governors To Discuss Goals for US Schools." Christian Science Monitor, Sept. 27, pp. 1-2.

2. Cattani, Richard J (1989). "The Beauty of Conviction." Christian Science Monitor, October 5, p. 18.
3. Davis, Donald (1986). "Ecosophy: The Seduction of Sophia?" Environmental Ethics, Vol. 8, Summer, pp. 151-162. Davis is a research assistant and consultant to Jeremy Rifkin's Foundation on Economic Trends in Washington, D.C.. "A body politic that is equally concerned with the liberating of all living things should be the primary concern of the environmental movements. Not just the liberation of women or men, but the entire vital process we call nature. A political platform must be developed . . . that insures the formation of an alternative political process. Jeremy Rifkin, in his most recently published book, Declaration of a Heretic (New York: Routledge, Kegan Paul, 1985. I was graciously allowed by Mr. Rifkin a glimpse of the unedited version of this book. Unfortunately, this passage was edited out of the final draft), has proposed such a platform:
The new political context is based on a set of assumptions that are very different from the ones now operative within the current world political frame. By exchanging empathy for power, equity for advantage, borrowing for growing, participation for control and sacred for productive, we establish a new point of reference for all political decisions. Within this new political context, environmentalists, feminists, stewardship Christians, and other new age movements no longer have to ask where they fit in. They are no longer simply constituencies advancing issues. That's because the principles of empathy, equity, borrowing, participation and sacredness happen to be central values to all these movements. By taking the fundamental principles of these movements and making them the context of the new political philosophy, society adopts their outlook as its own (160)."
4. Anonymous (1989). [A graduate student in adult education who has done quite a bit of professional work in ecology has sent me some helpful comments on this draft. Until I get permission to use this person's name, I'll refer to it this way.] "I'm not clear as to the purpose of this work, but it may be useful to clarify that formal education isn't the be-all of learning, surely life experiences are intrinsic to our overall growth as human beings. I personally feel that those who suffer from the delusion that education is the 'greatest thing since sliced bread,' are from one of two groups. Those that have a vested interest in the continuation of the present monopolistic education structure at all levels, and I include a great number of adult educators in this group. The second group includes those who are (for whatever reasons) ignorant of the limitations of education as it stands today."

Chesterton, G.K (1950). "The Superstition of School," in The Common Man [sic] . London: Sheed & Ward, pp. 37-41. "If you ask me whether I think the populace, especially the poor, should be recognized as citizens who can rule the state, I answer in a voice of thunder, 'Yes.' If you ask me whether I think they ought to have education, in the sense of a wide culture and familiarity with the classics of history, I again answer, 'Yes.' But there is, in the achievement of this purpose, a sort of a snag or recoil that can only be discovered by experience…The snag in it is this: that the self-educated think far too much of education. I might add that the half-educated always think everything of education. . . . When I said that I wanted the popular feeling to find political expression, I meant the actual and autochthonous popular feeling as it can be found in third-class carriages and bean-feasts and bank holiday crowds; and especially, of course (for the earnest social seeker after truth) in public-houses. I thought, and still think, that those people are right on a vast number of things on which the fashionable leaders are wrong. The snag is that when one of these people begins to 'improve himself it is exactly at that moment that I begin to doubt whether it is an improvement. He seems to collect with remarkable rapidity a number of superstitions, of which the most blind and benighted is what may be called the Superstition of School. He regards School, not as a normal social institution to be fitted in to other social institutions, like Home and Church and State; but as some sort of entirely supernormal and miraculous moral factory, in which perfect men and women are made by magic. To this idolatry of School he is ready to sacrifice Home and History and Humanity, with all its instincts and possibilities, at a moment's notice. . . . Let none say that I am scoffing at uneducated people; it is not their uneducation but their education that I scoff at. Let none mistake this for a sneer at the half-educated; what I dislike is the educated half. But I dislike it, not because I dislike education, but because, given the modern philosophy or absence of philosophy, education is turned against itself, destroying the very sense of variety and proportion which it is the object of education to give. No man who worships education has got the best out of education; no man who sacrifices everything to education is even educated. . . . What is wrong is a neglect of principle; and the principle is that without a gentle contempt for education, no gentleman's education is complete (38-40). ...

"I use the casual phrase casually; for I do not concern myself with the gentleman but with the citizen. . . . The truth of which I speak has nothing to do with any special culture or any special class. It has belonged to any number of peasants, especially when they are poets; it is this which gives a sort of natural distinction to Robert Burns and the peasant poets of Scotland. The power which produces it more effectively than any blood or breed is religion; for religion may be defined as that which puts first things first. Robert Burns was justifiably impatient with the religion he inherited from Scottish Calvinism; but he owed something to his inheritance. His instinctive consideration of men as men came from an ancestry which still cared more for religion than education. The moment men begin to care more for education than religion they begin to care more for ambition than for education. It is no longer a world in which the souls of all are equal before heaven, but a world in which the mind of each is bent on achieving unequal advantage over the other. There begins to be a mere vanity in being educated; whether it be self-educated or merely state-educated. Education ought to be a searchlight given to a man to explore everything, but very specially the things most distant from himself. Education tends to be a spotlight; which is centered entirely on himself. Some improvement may be made by turning equally vivid and perhaps vulgar spotlights upon a large number of other people as well. But the only final cure is to turn off the limelight and let him realize the stars (40-41)."
Ohliger, John (1982). Adult Education in a World of Excessive Riches/Excessive Poverty. Talk delivered September/October for the University of British Columbia, Athabasca University, University of Alberta Extension, University of Calgary, Ramah-Navajo School Board (New Mexico), & University of Wyoming. "I think the problem goes much deeper and has to do with how we see knowledge. In fact, seeing knowledge may be precisely the problem. Knowledge, in common parlance and in the loftiest reaches of philosophy, is something that is metaphorically seen. We often describe the process as enlightenment. We call ignorance 'living in darkness.' Mort Gordon, the former Head of the graduate adult education program at the University of Michigan, says universities should be 'Temples of Light.' In everyday language we 'see the light' when we discover some truth or perceive some reality. In cartoons a light bulb goes on over the head of a character who gets an idea. So we may feel that if we can only get our students to attain something called 'insight' about a technique they will be able to apply it in a situation entirely different from the classroom in which it was taught. It may be the overemphasis on this form of knowledge that's the problem.

"Perhaps we should consider other ways of thinking about knowledge. Some philosophers of liberation are claiming that in the Third World truth, being, reality, are not considered something to be seen. They are not a light in the window of existence. 'The nomad and the shepherd experience being as proximity, face-to-face. Being is not expressed as clarity but as neighborliness. Among the classical philosophers the world was considered to be that which is seen, thought, controlled. If instead, spatiality is given priority, proximity becomes the criterion of reality and freedom provides the categories. Praxis then means to shorten the distance' (Pannikkar, 1980). This Third World approach calls into question the overemphasis we have placed on words, ideas, and intellect to the detriment of feelings, experience, and personal human relationships. . . .
"Orthodox adult educators continue to focus on knowledge as illumination. Without rejecting that approach, alternate adult educators balance it with an emphasis on community and face-to-face mutual concern. They may be developing a conception of knowledge as what goes on when people are close to each other and support each other in the day-to-day struggles and joys of their existence (7)." . . . Pannikkar, Raimundo (1980). "A Philosophy of Liberation." Cross Currents, Winter 1980-31, pp. 454-455. An essay-review on Enrique Dussell's Filosofia de la Liberacion. Mexico City, Editorial Edicol, S.A., 1977. "The first task of a philosophy of liberation is to liberate philosophy itself."
5. "Global Back-to-Basics (1989)." Editorial in The Christian Science Monitor, November 24, p7 20. "Now the United Nations has climbed on the already much-loaded education bandwagon. Last week the UN announced in Boston a global initiative to help bring literacy and education to all the people of the world. Talk about a modest proposal.

"Plans for 'Education for All' took shape in France last month. Next, UN staff members travel around to various world regions — the Mideast, the Caribbean, West and East Africa, South America, the Far East — in order to develop ideas and strategies. In March 1990, all parties meet in Bangkok for a world conference.

"The content is global back-to-basics. The UN wants to learn how to give every child at least two years of schooling. . . . Unfortunately, the rhetoric is thick with global-speak, future-speak, and techno-speak. We are on the brink of a new vision. We can 'transform an historically unprecedented possibility into a reality' if we 'modernize new and revolutionary communications mechanisms.' That's a long way from where real people are, particularly in developing lands.

"Yet the idea of regional meetings is good. Perhaps by March critical feedback will help the UN avoid reinventing a huge wheel. The American crowd, including top US education reformers, will give the UN an earful. For example; Education is more than just reaching people with information. UN officials made a comparison to successes in getting third-world parents to inoculate their children. In Boston, more than $7,000 per pupil is spent reaching, even flooding kids with knowledge, but test scores are low and the drop-out rate is nearly 50 percent. Education is not inoculation. ..."
6. Anonymous (1989). [See above at #4] "I agree that education can be described as a community/pod in the eco-system, where adult education is one cell within education, but operates in conjunction with all our other needs in life, that is, the family structure, work, economic structures, etc. As such, education therefore becomes a fundamental element as to our ability to survive in the eco-system effectively, efficiently and harmoniously.' "The education system cannot be reviewed out of context, which I feel is currently the case in so much of the adult education research. Education begets politics, education begets power, education begets control. Control is being fought for at all levels from the individual instructors seeking academic recognition (for which some have been known to dispel all notion of integrity and ethical practice), to governments investing dollars in producing the 'best' scholars, teachers, etc.

"In order to communicate/interact with the rest of the ecological system, education has standardized (to death) its language, operation and evaluation procedures to develop a common language between the other pods within the system, for instance, it's been considered necessary to dilute much of education for the purpose of effectively communicating with politicians and business people.

"Those who then possess this language of education are perceived as 'knowing' versus those who don't possess such language. Thus groups of people are then penalized for this lack of language within the education pod, but also in other sectors of the system. Consider the indigenous peoples of this continent whose ways of learning are vastly different from the formal North American education process, and how they are still seen as deficient by educators in our society. Such marginality has detrimental effects on their funding, recognition and self-pride. Other marginal groups of people such as immigrants, the disabled, the economically deprived, etc. Women are a whole other kettle of fish in that they are not a marginal group (physically) but they have been maneuvered into a position of diminished control.

"The language used in formal education is primarily from a narrow perspective. The vast majority of research has been conducted employing philosophies and research methods that are congruent with a male understanding of the eco-system, that is incorporating [and] utilizing positivistic research. Such approaches are infected with qualities like competition, strive to survive, dog eat dog syndromes. Power and control are the goals in such paradigms (as witnessed by the increasing number of academic researchers in adult education who struggle to maintain their dominance). The education system is considered a fixed entity that can only be possessed by so many. This is contrasted to the more feminist paradigms where the intent is the cooperative understanding of all learners, learning from and with others. Thus education is seen as a flexible pod which through nurturing can grow, perhaps the basis of our Mother Earth."
Merchant, Carolyn (1985). "Feminism and Ecology." In Deep Ecology. Bill Devall & George Sessions, eds. Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith, Inc., pp. 229-231. "Process is Primary. The first law of thermodynamics, which is also the first law of ecology, asserts the conservation of energy in an ecosystem as energy is changed and exchanged in its continual flow through the interconnected parts. The total amount of energy entering and leaving the Earth is the same. The science of ecology studies the energy flow through the system of living and non-living parts on the Earth. All components are parts of a steady-state process of growth and development, death and decay. The world is active and dynamic; its natural processes are cyclical, balanced by cybernetic, stabilizing, feedback systems.

"The stress on dynamic processes in nature has implications for change and process in human societies. The exchange and flow of information through the human community is the basis for decision making. Open discussion of all alternatives in which ecologists and technologists, lawyers and workers, women and men participate as equals is an appropriate goal for both environmentalists and feminists. Each individual has experience and knowledge that is of value to the human-nature community (230)."
Rifkin, Jeremy (1989). Entropy; Into the Greenhouse World. Revised edition. With Ted Howard. New York: Bantam Books. "The Entropy Law . . . defines the ultimate physical boundaries within which we are constrained to act. . . . After finishing this book some will remain unconvinced that there are physical limits that place constraints on human action in the world. Others will be convinced but will conclude with despair that the Entropy Law is a giant cosmic prison from which there is no escape. Finally, there will be those who see the Entropy Law as the truth that can set us free. The first group will continue to uphold the existing world paradigm. The second group will be without a world view. The third group will be harbingers of the new age (xi)....

"Entropy [the second law of thermodynamics] is a measure of the amount of energy no longer capable of conversion into work. ... An entropy increase, then, means a decrease in 'available’ energy. Every time something occurs in the natural world, some amount of energy ends up being unavailable for future work. Part of the unavailable energy is pollution, dissipated energy that accumulates in the environment and that poses a grave threat to the ecosystem and to public health (49)....

[From the chapter, "Education," in Part Five, "Entropy and the Industrial Age," pp. 181-191:] "Most of us have gone through the painful experience of cramming for an exam. The 'magic-marker syndrome' is a well-established academic phenomenon. That's when, the night before a test, the student takes out a yellow magic marker and proceeds to underline large sections of the textbook in the hope of memorizing and retaining giant chunks of data just long enough to regurgitate them back onto the test page in the classroom the following morning. Within twenty-four hours of the test, chances are good that little or none of the data has been retained. What has been retained, however, is a massive hangover which often lingers on for several days. Students get 'up' for the exam and afterwards they 'crash.' This is the typical pattern set in the American education system (181).

"The way the student prepares for his exam is not unlike the way an ear of corn is prepared for an Iowa farm. In both instances, a massive expenditure of energy results in a slight entropy decrease in the product (in the student's case, the amount of knowledge retained) at the expense of a greater increase in the entropy of the environment. With the corn, the entropy increase in the overall environment is called environmental pollution. Psychologists now refer to the dissipated energy that accumulates in the student's environment as information pollution. It can manifest itself in a hundred and one different ways, from the buildup of neurosis to nervous breakdowns (181-182).

"Everything we do requires the expenditure of energy, even the learning process. The Entropy Law is always at work in the collection of information, as in every other endeavor. Of course, whenever we learn something, we generally believe that we are adding to the value and order of the world we live in. For a long time educators were convinced that at least the learning process was one activity that defied the second law by creating only greater order or the building up of mega-entropy. No longer. With the introduction of cybernetics and modern information theory after World War II, scientists realized that information gathering and the storage of knowledge required the expenditure of energy, and therefore an entropy price had to be paid (182)....

"If Adams [Henry Adam's controversial 1910 essay "A Letter to American Teachers of History," "in which he suggested that even the human mind, in its gathering and storing of information, was subject to the entropy process (182)"] is to be accused of heresy than so should the ancient Greeks with their belief in the tale of Pandora's Box and the Jews and Christians with their belief in the account of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. Both stories hold the original perfection of the world was undermined with the introduction of knowledge. When Pandora lifted the lid to the box, opening up the secrets of life, and when Eve ate the apple from the tree of knowledge, it marked the beginning of a long and torturous journey in which the accumulation and use of greater knowledge has led to greater disorder and fragmentation in the world (182-183). . . .

"As humankind has developed its mental activity from instinctual response all the way to abstract mathematical reasoning, it has generated greater disorder in the world around it. The hunter-gatherers afflicted the world with far less damage than modern man and woman with our greater power of abstract reasoning (184)....

"Today we are bombarded with information. Advertising, the mass media, our educational system are pounding on us with thousands and thousands of messages every day. . . . The advertising industry alone spent over $47 billion one recent year 'educating' the consumer (U.S. Dept of Commerce, Industry and Trade Administration — ITA. press release 79-1, January 3, 1979 — estimate that in 1979 advertising expenditures will reach $47.23 billion) (184).

"... The effect of the computer revolution, in totality, has been to dramatically increase the overall entropy in the world. Any energy and resource savings evidenced by individual computers has been compensated for by the total entropy impact of computerization. . . . The average individual computer today consumes fewer resources and energy than the prototypes of thirty years ago, this very fact has led to an astounding proliferation of computers, whose numbers have necessitated a massive consumption of the world's resources (185). ...

"When the whole system becomes dependent upon a computer for its effective functioning, the human being becomes hostage to the technology. Strangely enough, it seems that the more information that is made available to us, the less well informed we become. Decisions become harder to make, and our world appears more confusing than ever. Psychologists refer to this state of affairs as 'information overload,' a neat clinical phrase behind which sits the Entropy Law. As more and more information is beamed at us, less and less of it can be absorbed, retained, and exploited. The rest accumulates as dissipated energy or waste. The buildup of this dissipated energy is really just social pollution, and it takes its toll in the increase in mental disorders of all kinds, just as environmental pollution threatens our physical well-being (187).

"The sharp rise in mental illness in this country has paralleled the information revolution. That is not to suggest that the increase in mental illness is due solely to information overload. Other contributing factors include hereditary diseases, urban crowding, increased dislocation and migration of populations, and job-related stress (187).

"... In the mid 1970s, Leopold Bellak, professor of psychiatry at New York University, compared mental health to public health, arguing that more needed to be done 'to protect the community against emotional contamination' (quoted in Peter Schrag, Mind Control. New York: Pantheon, 1978, p. 43. See also Bellak's Overload; The New Human Condition. New York: Seabury Press, 1975). . . . There is no doubt that the term emotional contamination accurately describes what is taking place as we move more and more into an information and communication society (188)....
"Nowhere has the effect of the information revolution proven more deleterious than in our educational system. In the past fifteen years the cost of public education has quadrupled in the United States. In 1988, federal and state governments spent more that $270 billion on education for some 40 million school children (Personal Communication, Subcommittee on Labor, Health, and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies of the Appropriations Committee of the United States House of Representatives, October 1988). ... Yet in the same period students have shown a steady decline in actual learning (189)....

See also: Burich, Keith R (1987). "Henry Adams, The Second Law of Thermodynamics and the Course of History." The Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 48, July/Sept., pp. 467-482.

7. Anderson, Ken, et al (1988). "Roundtable on Communitarianism." Telos. No. 76, Summer, pp. 2-32. George Van der Loos recommends this article. Paul Piccone: "Communitarianism as a project of social reconstruction is tied neither to the Left nor to the Right. In the 1930s it was a Leftist project culminating in the New Deal, while in the 1980s it was successfully appropriated by the Right and translated into the electoral successes of 'Reagan's revolution.' Today both major political parties appeal to it, or to its substantive values, to anchor their respective programs without, it must be added, any objective possibilities whatsoever of translating this rhetoric into any meaningful politics (3). . . . The Left can relate to Communitarianism only as a 'feeling' which can in no way be politically operationalized other than by precipitating scores of undesirable unintended consequences. Lastly, Critical Theory, both in its traditional Adornian and the updated, eclectic Habermaniac variety, has nothing to add. Adorno readily falls into line with the traditional Old Left in condemning Communitarianism as Romantic reaction (implicitly identified with the Nazis' attempts to recreate a mythical Aryan community); and Habermas can only identify it with idealized graduate seminars composed of disembodied speakers seeking to come to trivial consensus on irrelevant issues (32)."
Frost, Robert (1967). "Lucretius Versus the Lake Poets." In Complete Poems.
"Nature, I loved; and next to Nature, Art."
Dean, adult education may seem silly.
What of it, though?
I got some willy-nilly
The other evening at your college deanery.
And grateful for it (let's not be facetious!)
For I thought Epicurus and Lucretius
By Nature meant the Whole Goddam Machinery.
But you say that in college nomenclature
The only meaning possible for Nature
In Landor's quatrain would be Pretty Scenery.
Which makes opposing it to Art absurd
I grant you — if you're sure about the word.
God bless the Dean and make his deanshtp plenary.

Illich, Ivan (1971). Deschoolinq Society. New York: Harper & Row. "We must rediscover the distinction between hope and expectation. Hope, in its strong sense; means trusting faith in the goodness of nature, while expectation means reliance on results which are planned and controlled by man [sic]. Hope centers desire on a person from whom we await a gift. Expectation looks forward to satisfaction from a predictable process which will produce what we have a right to claim. We now need a name for those who value hope above expectations. We need a name for those who love people more than products. We need a name for those who love the earth on which each can meet the other. I suggest that these hopeful brothers and sisters be called Epimetheans."

Parris, Helen E (1989). The Contradiction. For information write her: 1054 Spadina Crescent East, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7K 3H7. Manuscript in progress, from Chapter 9, "Social Adjustment in the Late Industrial Age." "My life in the precambrian shield country draws me ever closer to the natural world. In the course of everyday living I spend a good deal of time simply being a part of all that surrounds me. I note how majestic white pines on the lake shore, unable to put down tap roots in their rocky terrain, send their gnarled laterals across the rugged landscape to small pockets of life-giving earth. As I weed the gardens, I share a presence with wild bees as they go about their life-giving work. Bats live behind shutters on the outside of the house and I marvel over the thought that they work to exterminate garden pests while I sleep. I hear the metallic thunder of lake ice at "break up" time, and know that soon the lake will be a thriving habitat for countless organically interconnected and interdependent life forms. As I go about my daily routines, sharing this space with all other life forms, who am I to set myself apart from them? How can I help but know that I am a member of a miraculous community that cannot be explained by the sum of its parts? And so it was that, without realizing it, this perception of community in the natural world helped me to gain a more holistic perception of human commununity (3-4)."
8. Adams, Cecil (1989). "The Straight Dope." Isthmus (Madison, WI), May 5, p. 45.
“I had just bought some future beachfront property in Nevada, counting on the greenhouse effect to melt the ice caps and inundate California, when I heard about the 'Gaia' theory. In a nutshell, this theory says that living things on earth change the environment to suit themselves, instead of just adapting. One result of the Gaia effect, which threatens my get-rich scheme, is that carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has decreased, not increased, over geologic periods of time and will continue to do so — hence no greenhouse effect. Can you tell me more about this theory?” Barry Aldridge, Chicago

"ANSWER: Hoo boy. We're talking about one of the major irruptions of new Age mysticism into mainstream science, and let me tell you, you haven't even heard the good part yet. Gaiaism was first propounded by British biochemist J.E. Lovelock in a book called Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth (1979) and later in The Ages of Gaia (1988). Lovelock argues that the planet earth, which he calls Gaia, is a living organism, although not a conscious one. And I don't mean just that rocks have souls. Lovelock thinks all terrestrial life, us included, interacts with the earth to form a single living entity. In other words, Barry, maybe your job on this planet is to be the earth's toenails. I'm the brains naturally, and I know a couple people who are leading candidates for assho...well, no need to get graphic. But you know what I mean.

"Now, on one level you can say, sure, everybody's everything and we're all one. So what? But Lovelock argues that Gaiaism has practical consequences: The planet, like individual creatures, is self-regulating, perhaps even self-healing. To illustrate this, Lovelock uses the concept of a living world full of black daisies and white daisies. If the hypothetical Daisy world gets too cold, more black daisies grow, absorbing sunlight and cooling things off. Lovelock and his supporters are currently trying to find examples of this sort of thing happening on earth, so far with limited success.

"Most scientists don't buy Gaiaism, but they take it seriously enough to argue with it. The notion that the earth constitutes an organism in any meaningful sense is particularly troubling; even Lovelock doesn't claim that the earth is automatically going to compensate for environmental insults inflicted by man [sic]. In other words, fear not: The waves will be lapping at your Nevada beachfront yet."

Burrow, Trigant (1958). A Search for Man's [sic] Sanity: The Selected Letters of Triqant Burrow with Biographical Notes. Prepared by the Editorial Committee of the Lifwynn Foundation, William E. Gait, Chairman. Foreword by Sir Herbert Read. Jack Wikse is now associated with the Lifwynn Foundation, 30 Turkey Road South, Westport, CT 06880. ". . .As to the Lifwynn Foundation, it is in a broad sense a symbol; it stands for the development of phylobiology — a laboratory approach to man's [sic] behavior that represents the effort not of one individual but of a group, a community — may I suggest that it embraces latently a race or phylum — of individuals. ... It is an incorporated organization that originated in a definite laboratory need and only later came to be appreciated as a community-vehicle for carrying on the study of man as an integral part of man's community life (172, June 21, 1935).

". . . As a race are we not woven into a unitary tissue that is as common to us functionally, physiologically as the elements that unite us structurally into a common, unitary species (176, June 27, 1927)?
"... I had thought that if my book stood out strongly for anything, it was for a conception of religion that is one with the biological solidarity of life. I am sorry if I did not make it plain that my quarrel is by no means with religion as the ultimate reality of man's feeling-life but with those pretenses of devotion to truth which now so widely travesty devotion and truth under the guise of empty social images and symbols (223, March 28, 1929).

"... You could not eat or walk or breathe except as you are a biological organism. Breathing, it is true, like many physiological functions, is purely automatic [BUT DON'T MANY APPROACHES TO MEDITATION CALL FOR MAKING BREATHING A CONSCIOUS ACT?] , but so many other functions including even walking call for very complicated and very delicate muscular adjustments that must be definitely learned by the individual in the process of his growth. This learning, this knowing, is dependent upon an internal balance of adjustment that demands correct internal feeling (335, July 5, 1937).

"... It is strange how insulated we have come to feel toward one another. We could not possibly doubt — not any of us — the oneness and continuity of the social structure that unites us symbolically as people of a common language and meaning. We accept without question the common tie of 'meaning.' But beneath meaning and before meaning ever was, there was the structure out of which all our meaning has been fashioned — the common bodily structure and function that have given us the building-material of all our symbols, all our common implements of understanding and social contact (360, January 25, 1938).

". . .My own interest has for years centered in what I call man's social neurosis. My thesis is that the life of man is primarily unitary and integrated. ('Know ye not that ye are all one body?') As a physician interested in mental and nervous disorders (I was among the earliest of the American psychoanalysts) I soon came to the position that the real conflict in these disorders of behavior — and there is always the element of conflict in these conditions — is a basic, if deeply latent, sense of this originally unitary structure and function and feeling common to us all, and that the real pain is due to the organism's separation from this primarily unified principle. We don't want to be greedy and competitive and self-centered. It is due to an inadvertent faux pas in our evolution (417, June 1, 1941).

". . .Of course I am never going to help man in the fundamental reconstruction of his own behavior. Nobody is. It is only my long-conditioned habits of abstraction, affectivity and consequent isolation that ever led me to suppose I could. Man must avail himself of the discoveries of science to help himself. I do not doubt, though, that even now man is in his own way assisting himself, that he is somehow getting back to biological base, that all this world revolution — as ghastly, as insane, as destructive as it is — is somehow an expression of man's need to come to himself. My part, your part — the part of the social biologist, as I see it, is to use whatever authority we possess to assist this process of man's re-adaptation. It is to show as far as we can that man himself (and we go along with him) is the only authority in matters of his own behavior, that this authority is internal to him, as it is internal to us, and that whatever we presume to know, wherever we presume to make an abstraction of this thing that is man's internal motivation we are only deceiving ourselves and man. We are only adding to the obstruction, and retarding man's ultimate self-actualization (427, October 23, 1941).

". . . Who was it said, 'A word to the wise is sufficient'? Wisdom is primarily of the body — of the body's autonomic system. But who is in touch with this basic system of man's motivation? Whose head any longer concedes the priority of this all-wise source of the organism's balance. And so what avails 'the word' — the word that the head picks up and casts off for its own private unilateral ends. . . . Until one is wise, what avails the word (483, May 19, 1945).

"... Following our group investigation of many years, there remains no doubt that man is a dual personality. As I say, there is on the one hand the organism of man in its native, spontaneous interests and activations, and on the other there is sophisticated man — man who has been tutored from infancy in self-consciousness, in conforming to laws that are not intrinsic to his organism but that relate solely to his external appearance and to his own advantage. In his spontaneous behavior, man's processes are ordered and harmonious as the course of the stars. But in the process of his 'civilization' reactions have arisen that are throughout artificial and subversive of the basic health of man (495, March 28, 1946).
Cheng, Chung-ying (1986). "On the Environmental Ethics of the Tao and the Ch'i." Environmental Ethics, Vol. 8, Winter, pp. 351-370. "Ecology originally meant the economy of nature: when nature acts, it acts ecologically. The production of life and all things in nature can be said to come from the ecological movement of nature. In understanding the ecology of nature, one would naturally understand the Tao; but only when one independently sees the universality, unity, and life-creativity of the Tao, will one truly understand the ecology of nature. Hence, the Tao can be said to be the metaphysical foundation of the ecology of nature, whereas the ecology of nature is one principle of movement manifesting the Tao, corresponding to its spontaneity(357)."
Coates, Gary & Julie Coates (1981). "Bioregion as Community: The Kansas Experience." The CoEvolution Quarterly, Winter, pp. 75-83. "The first encounter with the Great Plains can create a sense of awe, vastness, and indescribable loneliness. There is no more powerful landscape on the Earth. It rolls on and on with nothing but the rise and swell of land and grass. In every direction there is horizon and sky. With neither hills nor trees to mark a passage it seems that time itself has come to an end. There is only space, infinite extent. ... No doubt the Plains would have remained an interior wilderness inhabited by 'savages' had it not been for the hunger for land and the glory of empire that gripped the U.S. after the Civil War. The Great American Desert became transmuted, by force of will and the seductive descriptions of those who stood to gain by settled life in the region (e.g. the railroads and government), into the Garden of the World, an agrarian utopia destined for a Jeffersonian democracy of yeoman farmers living close to nature and nature's God. To date, every attempt to realize this Utopian dream has led to ecological and human disaster, largely because of the failure to adapt humid-area and industrial institutions, technologies, and world views to the needs of the land. White settlement of the Plains is a cyclical story of exploitation and collapse (75-76)....

"If we are once again to have a meaningful politics of place, mechanisms must be found for people within the local community to share their concerns, their knowledge and their lives. Like the Greek notion of paideia, education must be thought of as a primary function of membership in a community rather than the consumption of certified knowledge commodities acquired through submission to bureaucratic process in specialized institutions. The community itself must become the setting for a lifelong process of self-transformation through (not instead of) the pursuit of the greatest good for the greatest number. Life and learning must once again become a unified whole (77)....

"The problems of this or any other region cannot be addressed without first involving people in the process of personal, cultural, institutional and technical change in the places where they live, in their own backyards, streets, and towns. Without that, there can be no bioregional movement for change. It is the central paradox of localism and the central problem of bioregionalism. People must be firmly rooted before they will fight destruction that comes from beyond their boundaries. Community is the beginning and the end of bioregionalism. Before the bioregion can become a community, the experience of community must become a familiar and cherished condition of everyday life. Action toward these ends can never be motivated by the expectation of success. It can only occur with hope. We all have to be somewhere. Why not work wherever we are to make that part of the Earth a better place to be, a place worth saving? What other choices do we have (83)?"
Devall, Bill (1988). Simple in Means, Rich in Ends: Practicing Deep Ecology. Salt Lake City:
Peregrine Smith Books, 224 pp. "It is not just that we learn from experience, but rather how we are experiencing the world. That is the basis for authentic statements of our environmental philosophy. Even when we don't fully understand our experience in an intellectual sense, we can understand with our bodies. . . . Perceptive writers including Wendell Berry, Gary Snyder, Theodore Roszak and [Arne] Naess, suggest that there are social and economic reasons for the ecological crisis, but at its root is not so much a crisis of the environment as a crisis of character and culture (2). . . .

"The deep, long-range ecology movement is a hope-filled movement. Philosophers who have articulated formal statements of deep ecology suggest it is a radical approach to being-in-the-world. It is radical in the sense of getting back to our roots. Through practicing [deep ecology] we enrich our lives in ways which do not impoverish the habitat of other species (3). ...
"Even though [Arne] Naess coined the term deep ecology in the early 1970s, by rereading the history of the environmental movement in North America we can see that the deep, long-range ecology movement has interwoven with the reform environmental movement for over a hundred years. If reform environmentalism and deep ecology seem to be diverging in the late 1980s, it is because of the increasingly conservative political stance of reform environmental organizations, their willingness to legitimate the institutions which exploit mountains and forests, and their lack of ecological vision (8). . . . "The deep ecology movement is not a new religion or cult, nor does it fight any religions. Supporters of deep ecology are fighting against thoughtlessness and mindless behavior (12).... Environmentalists are protesting not only the stripping of primeval redwood forests, which violates wildlife habitat and promotes unsustainable farming practices, they are also protesting 'the stripping of earthly meaning.' Environmentalists, including supporters of deep ecology, are acting in the defense of the cosmos, not just in defense of scenery or of sustainable forestry. The contemporary definition of environment [as just the setting for human activity] is part of 'the nihilistic behemoth which environmentalists seek to transcend (24) [Evernden 1985].' . . .

"The dominant myth says nature is secular, materialistic, exploitable. The conventional image of nature based on science and resourcism is nihilistic (25-26).... In contrast with the Western externalistic point of view on environment, the Chinese tradition, as represented by both Confucianism (with the I Chinq as its metaphysical philosophy) and Taoism (with Chuang Tzu and Lao Tzu as its content), has developed an internalistic point of view on the environment. The internalistic point of view in Chinese philosophy focuses on man [sic] as the consummator of nature rather than man as the conqueror of nature, as a participant in nature rather than as a predator of nature. Man as the consummator of nature expresses continuously the beauty, truth, and goodness of nature; and articulates them in a more or a natural cultivation of human life or human nature (26-27) [Chung-ying Cheng 1986, p. 354)....

"While it is increasingly popular to talk about the need for a paradigm shift, in reality we cannot shift paradigms just by talking about them. Even a shift in vocabulary could be either tokenism or trendiness. Writing about the need for a paradigm shift may sensitize people to the crisis of culture, but it could also increase anxiety and lead to further denial of the crisis (36).... Before changing paradigms or political ideologies or social institutions, it seems to me, we must change the way we experience life (37)."

Farb, Peter (1983). Ecology. New York: Life Nature Library. "Any description of succession to a climax is probably an idealized and perhaps unrealistic one. ... In fact, so transient is the equilibrium of the climax stage, that there is currently disagreement among ecologists as to whether climaxes actually exist as the textbooks describe them or whether they are not merely a convenient label. In fact, when one examines a community, it is difficult to see in it the stability that is connoted by the popular idea of 'the balance of nature. . . . Rather than a single balance of nature, one should probably visualize a multitude of balances in the world of living things. These balances should not be depicted as the single scales balanced upon a fulcrum but rather as a roomful of clocks of every size and description, with pendulums that vary in their swings from year to year and from moment to moment. Nevertheless, all of these clocks, unless seriously tampered with by the heavy hand of humankind or disaster, manage to keep approximately the same time, and their pendulums swing within fairly definite limits. Change rather than stability is the key to the understanding of the world of living things (44). . . .
"When a barnacle gets a free ride on a whale ... it gains from a cooperative relationship less harmful to its host than parasitism. This is called commensalism, and it is fairly low on a scale of cooperative relationships, increasing in intimacy, usually called symbiotic. Somewhat more intimate is a mutualistic relationship, in which the two partners help each other" (113).
Foster, Thomas W (1987). "The Taoists and the Amish: Kindred Expressions of Eco-Anarchism." The Ecologist, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 9-14. "Although worlds apart in time and, seemingly, in culture, the Taoists of Ancient China and the Amish of contemporary America have much in common. Both sects share in a commitment to a life of voluntary simplicity, based on strict religious principles. Both put the values of 'community' above those of 'individualism.' Both foreswear those technologies which are deemed a threat to society or the environment. And both reject the formal institutions of the national State, obeying only those laws which are compatible with their religious conscience. We have much to learn from these 'Eco-Anarchists.' In describing an ideal society Lao Tzu may have been the first to declare that 'small is beautiful' [in Passage # 80, though the problem with this comparison is that the Amish exist, Lao Tzu's historical existence is in dispute] and that contentment may be achieved through community and a simple, natural lifestyle (9)."
Fowles, John (1983). The Tree. New York: Ecco Press. [Fowles is the author of such novels as The French Lieutenant's Woman and Daniel Martin. This book is a long essay:] "Increasingly we live by the old tag, Aut Caesar, aut nullus. If I can't be Caesar, I'll be no one. If I can't have the knowledge of a scientist, I'll know nothing. If I can't have superb close-ups and rare creatures in the nature around me, to hell with it (35). . . .

"It is of course not the fault of modern scientists . . . that their vision of empirical knowledge, the all-important value they put upon proven or demonstrable fact, has seeped down to dominate the popular view of nature — and our education about it. Our fallacy lies in supposing that the limiting nature of scientific method corresponds to the nature of ordinary experience (36). '

"Ordinary experience, from waking second to second, is in fact highly synthetic (in the sense of combinative or constructive), and made of a complexity of strands, past memories and present perceptions, times and places, private and public history, hopelessly beyond science's powers to analyze. It is quintessentially 'wild,' in the sense my father disliked so much: unphilosophical, irrational, uncontrollable, incalculable. In fact it corresponds very closely — despite our endless efforts to 'garden,' to invent disciplining social and intellectual systems — with wild nature. Almost all of the richness of our personal existence derives from this synthetic and eternally present 'confused' consciousness of both internal and external reality, and not least because we know it is beyond the analytical, or destructive, capacity of science (36-37). ...

"Achieving a relationship with nature is both a science and an art, beyond mere knowledge or mere feeling alone; and I now think beyond oriental mysticism, transcendentalism, 'meditation techniques' and the rest. . . . The subtlest of our alienations from it, the most difficult to comprehend, is our need to use it in some way, to derive some personal yield. We shall never fully understand nature (or ourselves), and certainly never respect it, until we dissociate the wild from the notion of usability — however innocent and harmless the use. For it is the general uselessness of so much of nature that lies at the root of our ancient hostility and indifference to it (39)....

"It is far less nature itself that is yet in true danger than our attitude toward it. Already we behave as if we live in a world that holds only a remnant of what there actually is; in a world that may come, but remains a black hypothesis, not a present reality (42).

". . . It is not necessarily too little knowledge that causes ignorance; possessing too much, or wanting to gain too much, can produce the same result. There is something in the nature of nature, in its presentness, its seeming transience, its creative ferment and hidden potential, that corresponds very closely with the wild, or green man [sic], in our psyches; and it is a something that disappears as soon as it is relegated to an automatic pastness, a status of merely classifiable thing, image taken then (51-52)."
Gilman, E. Ward, editor (1989). Webster's Dictionary of English Usage. Springfield, MA:
Merriam-Webster, Inc. Entry for ecology: "Ecology is a scientific word that in recent years has come into widespread use among nonscientists. In its oldest sense, it means 'a branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their environment.' It can also refer in scientific use to the interrelationship itself, rather than to the study of it.

"... This use of ecology is well established and above reproach. Such difficulties as arise with ecology have to do with its use by general (nonscientific) writers to mean 'the environment' or 'the natural world.' Several recent commentators have noted and criticized this use of the word. Our files contain a few clear-cut examples of it.

"... Most of our evidence for ecology in this sense is from the early 1970s, when the environmental movement was first coming into its own and its terminology was still relatively new and unfamiliar to many people. No doubt ecology is still sometimes used to mean 'environment' but our evidence suggests that such usage, which was never very common, is becoming increasingly rare. A current writer is far more likely to use environment than ecology in such contexts as those quoted above (381)."

Goldsmith, Edward (1988A). "Gaia: Some Implications for Theoretical Ecology." The Ecologist, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 64-74. "Ecology, as an academic discipline, was developed towards the end of the last century. It came into being largely when a few biologists came to realize that the biological organisms and populations which they studied were not arranged at random but were, on the contrary, organized to form 'communities' or 'associations' whose structure and function could not be understood by examining their parts in isolation from each other. Both Frederick Clements and Victor Shelford, two of the most distinguished of the early ecologists in the USA, defined ecology as the 'science of communities' (in Bio-Ecoloqy. New York: Wiley, 1930) (64). . . .

"Ecology has in fact been perverted — perverted in the interests of making it acceptable to the scientific establishment and to the politicians and industrialists who sponsor it. ... It is unlikely that those ecologists who view the biosphere in purely reductionistic and mechanistic terms can understand the implications of the devastation being wrought by the modern industrial system, and hence that they can understand what action is required to bring this devastation to an end (65)." . . .

Goldsmith, Edward (1988B). "The Way: An Ecological World-View." The Ecoloqist, Vol. 18, Nos. 4/5. "The ecosphere must be seen as highly ordered, indeed a highly organized cooperative enterprise, very much as the Natural Theologians of the 18th century saw it, and very much too as are all other natural cybernetic systems — the human organism for instance. . . . Ecology is subjective. ... In the words of Worster: 'Goethe considered that there was a "perfect correspondence between the inner nature of a human being and the structure of external reality, between the soul and the world." The World was thereby a reflection of a person's own image and the person in turn reflected nature's order, the two being inseparable. This called for a subjective and emotional attitude toward nature.' . . . Cooperation is the primary Gaian relationship. Cooperation (whether of the type referred to as 'commensalism,' 'symbiosis,' or 'mutualism') is the most fundamental interrelationship between natural systems both at the same and different levels in the Gaian hierarchy. Without cooperation between the parts of a natural system, be it a biological organism, a family, a community or even an ecosystem, the system could not hold together or exist as a unity of adaptive life processes — still less could it compete with other systems."

Hill, Richard (1989). "Ecology Wars." Omni, August, p. 25. "Murray Bookchin called Edward Abbey and his followers 'barely disguised racists, survivalists, macho Daniel Boones and outright social reactionaries [whose ideas are] an ideological toxic dump.' Abbey called Bookchin a 'fat, old woman.' This ad hominem mayhem didn't occur in a tight political race or a professional wrestling match; it emanated from the ranks of those committed to saving the earth. Neither Bookchin's social ecologists nor Abbey's deep ecology colleagues have much use for the mainstream, Sierra Club brand of activism, which salves many people's consciences. They do agree, however, that saving the earth is too serious a problem to solve within the system. Why, then, this rancor? Because the two groups' solutions arise from radically different views of man [sic], his environment, and the relation between the two.

"The social ecologists advocate a political solution modeled on democratic socialism or recent Green Party platforms. They believe that only humankind can solve the problems we have created and see us as custodians, stewards of nature. The attack, they say, must be upon the capitalist, consumerist, growth- and progress-oriented system that began with the Industrial Revolution and is now threatening the planet's very survival. The problem is man's ignorance and greed and can be solved only by reform of man's institutions. Right-thinking people, they say, should redistribute wealth, food, resources.

"Deep ecologists, on the other hand, see mankind [sic] itself as the main problem. They believe the earth, which they sometimes call Gaia, is a complex organism with its own needs, metabolism, and immune system and that mankind's relation to the earth is increasingly parasitic. In Deep Ecology; Living Nature as If Nature Mattered, proponents Bill Devall and George Sessions clearly state their principles: Humans have no right to reduce the richness and diversity of life except to satisfy vital needs; the flourishing of human life and cultures is compatible with a substantial decrease of the human population; the flourishing of nonhuman life requires such a decrease. . . . Angrier deep ecologists such as Earth First! maverick Dave Foreman view AIDS and the recent African famine as natural controls, Earth's own defense against overpopulation. . . .

"To this armchair environmentalist all these groups seem useful, and if Earth First! takes extreme positions, we can remember and wonder how far the nonviolence of Martin Luther King would have gotten without the implicit threat of Malcolm X and H. Rap Brown."
Jackson, Wes (1987). Altars of Unhewn Stone; Science and the Earth. San Francisco: North Point Press. [From Chapter 2, "The Information Implosion":] "Though conventional wisdom holds that we are in the midst of an information explosion, more careful consideration must surely convince us that the opposite is true. Think of all that has happened to the world since 1935. Few dispute that there is less biological information. Species extinction at the rate of one thousand species a year or so, especially in the tropics, coupled with genetic truncation of the major crops, undeniably is a major loss of biological information. The new varieties released by plant breeders do not represent more information. 'Variety' is a legal term and reflects a selection of biological information already present. . . . Species extinction and genetic narrowing of the major crops aside, the loss of cultural information due to the de-population of our rural areas is far greater than all the information accumulated by science and technology in the same period. Farm families who practiced the traditions associated with planting, tending, harvesting, and storing the produce of the agricultural landscape gathered information, much of it unconsciously, from the time they were infants: in the farm household, in the farm community, and in the barns and fields. . . . Much of that information has already disappeared and continues to disappear as farmers leave the land. It is the kind of information that has been hard won over the millennia, from the time agriculture began. It is valuable because much of it is tuned to the harvest of contemporary sunlight, the kind of information we need now and in the future on the land (11-12). . . .

"The culture believes we are in the midst of an information explosion because of the status granted the knowledge accumulated through formal scientific methods. In contrast, knowledge accumulated through tradition, daily experience, and stories, mostly in an informal setting, has little status. We have taken this 'folk knowledge' for granted, I suspect, for however complex it might be, it was not all that complicated to internalize. What we acquired second nature was woven in with the rural setting, the daily work, the local values and the moral code. It is more the legacy of the dead than of the living. The more respected body of knowledge, learned through formal discovery or revelation of discovery in classrooms and textbooks, is of a different order. More discipline is involved in the discovery and in learning about the discovery. And though most of this information is not all that complex, it is more complicated for us to learn and to internalize. Maybe this is the reason we assign greater value to such knowledge than to that which we pick up through tradition. There has been an explosion of formal knowledge, but what was necessary to make it accumulate so fast led to the destruction of much of the other older, less formal knowledge (13-14).

[From Chapter 3 "Biotechnology and Supply-Side Thinking":] "I read recently in Scienceabout our problems in cleaning up industry. Those working on the ecological impact of industry have come to realize that though there is still a great deal of ecological information to be gained, we tend to use less information than is already available. The point is that we need to do a better job at employing the information we have [REMINDS ME OF THE BOB BLAKELY QUOTE FROM THE FARMER WHO TURNED DOWN "HELP" FROM AG EXTENSION BY SAYING "I ALREADY KNOW HOW TO FARM BETTER THAN I'M DOING IT."] (26).

"Once we said that we did not know enough. Now we are saying we know a lot, but we don't employ our knowledge. The implication is that we need to apply what we know. But developing from these considerations is the likelihood that any system we use for organizing the information we gathered also has limits and that humans will never be able to organize the necessary information we have on the shelf in a way what will serve to protect a biosphere that has been overly tinkered with (26).

"Just as nuclear technologists have told us not to worry about losing fossil fuels, enthusiasts for biotechnology are making us think they can transfer genetic information into our major crops from wild populations and that they can splice in these genes from this abundant source for a long time to come. Such a technology feeds the colonizing mind. But colonization is based on plunder and is inherently violent and wasteful, a fact we have been slow to acknowledge. The antidote to colonization is discovery. We need to discover how the world works to know better our place in it. In this sense, the true discovery of America lies before us. So far we have mostly colonized it (27).
[From Chapter 12, "Oracles, Prophets,and Modern Heroes":] "Our modern problem is that we are faced with what the authors of Seven Tomorrows called 'complex options with complicated solutions.' In an attempt to distill the complexity down to something manageable, I believe we can characterize two sets of minds at work. Imagine a pie with a small piece cut, but not removed from the plate. The small piece represents human cleverness, the large piece nature's wisdom. Imagine another pie cut like the first, but with the labels reversed. The first pie represents the agendas for the future of those who are devotees of the importance of human cleverness, with little regard for nature. The second pie represents the agendas of those who rely primarily on nature's wisdom.

"The 'human cleverness' folk are of a very different stripe from the 'nature's wisdom people. As I see it, the cultural battle to come has little to do with the traditional differences between Democrat and Republican, liberal and conservative. If we are lucky, it will be a conflict between the human cleverness folk and the nature's wisdom advocates. If course, we have to exercise human cleverness and take advantage of nature's wisdom. But the problems will come as the culture works out the proper ratio between these two, as countless hopes, dreams, and bona fide needs both float against one another and bombard one another during the shakedown, our cultural values will be paramount in determining the outcome of the conflict (85)....

Luke, Tim (1988). "The Dreams of Deep Ecology." Telos, No. 76, Summer, pp. 65-92. "As political philosophy, deep ecology has failed to show how and why it should be implemented. Like many revolutionary programs, deep ecology lacks a 'theory of transition.' There are no practical means for changing people's everyday consumerist habits into those of an ecotopian community without tremendous costs. One can agree with Snyder [in Turtle Island, p. 99] that 'we must change the very foundations of our society and our minds. Nothing short of total transformation will do much good.' But, how does any highly developed society, like the United States in the 1980s with 235 million people, living because of the global imports and exports of transnational corporate capitalism in and out of huge metroplexes, reinhabit its bio-regions such that 'the human population lives harmoniously and dynamically by employing a sophisticated and unobtrusive technology in a world environment which is "left natural."' Current world urbanism is nothing but obtrusive technology that renders the organic into the organic. . . . The philosophical dreams of deep ecology ultimately entail a moral and political nightmare (91)."

Martin, Brian (1981). "The Scientific Straitjacket: The Power Structure of Science and the Suppression of Environmental Scholarship." The Ecoloqist, Vol. 11, January, pp. 33-43. "Dissident scientists in communist countries receive wide publicity for their causes. But what of cases of suppression in the West? How do those who challenge the scientific establishment fare? And why have environmentalists become the chief target of those who seek to preserve the status quo (33). . . .

"The data presented here suggest an explanation for suppression of scientists based on an understanding of the power structure of science. Suppression does occur in a wide range of areas of scientific research and application, from anthropology to engineering to zoology. Tellingly, it occurs most frequently in areas such as environmental studies where opportunities arise for teaching and research which provides a threat to vested interests either inside or outside the scientific community (35)."

McKibben, Bill (1989). The End of Nature. New York: Random House, 226 pp. [Note: Goodrich, Chris (1989). "To Be or Not to Be? (Environmentally Speaking) in Fall Title from Random." Publishers Weekly August 25, p. 23. "A whole slew of books will be coming off the presses during the next few months, focusing on the devastation of the forests and the greenhouse effect. In The End of Nature ($19.95), however, to be published by Random House on September 29, Bill McKibben argues that the greenhouse effect is just one more symptom of an even more frightening phenomenon: man's [sic] alienation from, and unwitting destruction of, the natural world. ... As McKibben puts it in the book, 'We have deprived nature of its independence, and that is fatal to its meaning.' . . . After having beaten out some 10 other publishers for the U.S. and Canadian hardcover rights — paying an advance of significantly more that $200,000, according to reports — Random has planned a print run of at least 50,000, been offered a paperback floor of $250,000, and placed the title with the Book-of-the-Month Club as a featured alternate. ... To date, agent Gloria Loomis has sold rights to the United Kingdom, Italy, Holland, Latin America, France, Japan, Sweden, Germany, and Brazil for a total of more than $250,000."] Advance praise from Robert Coles and three others on the dust jacket.

McKibben: "If there is one notion that virtually every successful politician on earth — socialist or fascist or capitalist — agrees on, it is that 'economic growth' is good, necessary, the proper end of organized human activity. But where does economic growth end? It ends — or, at least, it runs straight through — the genetically engineered dead world that the optimists envision. That is, provided we can surmount our present environmental troubles.

"Those troubles, though, just might give us the chance to change the way we think. What if they gave us a practical — as opposed to a moral or an aesthetic — reason to climb out of our rut and find a new one that leads in some different direction. A reason based on atmospheric chemistry, not Eastern spirituality (173-174).. . .

"The inertia of affluence, the push of poverty, the soaring population — these and the other reasons listed earlier make me pessimistic about the chances that we will dramatically alter our ways of thinking and living, that we will turn humble in the face of our troubles (204). . . . But I cannot stand the clanging finality of the argument I've made, any more than people have ever been able to stand the clanging finality of their own deaths. So I hope against hope. Though not in our time, and not in the time of our children, or their children, if we now, today, limited our numbers and our desires and our ambitions, perhaps nature could someday resume its independent working. Perhaps the temperature could someday adjust itself to our own setting, and the rain fall of its own accord (215) ...

"I said, much earlier, that one of the possible meanings of the end of nature is that God is dead. But another, if there was or is any such thing as God, is that he has granted us free will and now looks on, with great concern and love, to see how we exercise it: to see if we take the chance offered by this crisis to bow down and humble ourselves, or if we compound original sin with terminal sin (216).... The ancients, surrounded by wild and even hostile nature, took comfort in seeing the familiar above them — [stars in the shapes of] spoons and swords and nets. But will need to train ourselves not to see those patterns. The comfort we need is inhuman (217)."

Owen, D.F (1974). What Is Ecology? New York: Oxford University Press. "The assemblage of plants and animals found in a river, in the garden, or in any other place is called a community, a term not to be confused with the community concept of sociologists which refers to human social structures and interactions. In the biological sense communities consist of a variety of species, many of them never seen by the average person because of their habits and small size. The combination of a community and its environment is called an ecosystem. . . . One of the main features of communities is the extraordinary intricacy of interactions between individuals of the same and of different species; we are here back to the question of who eats whom and who breeds with whom . . . Virtually every species of plant is eaten by several species of animals (75).... "The combined efforts of these organisms eventually account for everything produced by the green plants, and there is no substantial accumulation of plant material (75-76).... As various species of plants succeed one another there are corresponding changes in the species of animals present. Certain plants cannot become established until the environment has been sufficiently modified by other plants: moss normally found on bark cannot flourish until there are trees. The sequential changes which take place are called succession by ecologists, and the final association of plants and animals that becomes established is called the climax (80)." . . .
Parris, 1989, See at #7.

Richter, George (1989). The Consciousness of Earth. [Published by Gaia Press in unknown city. Available in Madison, Wisconsin at Paul's Books and Pic-A-Book — book is a long poem in unrhymed iambic pentameter:]
"... here we are, caught up,
as ever, in the illimitable web
woven by life, sustaining us and all,
and if we tear that from the earth, we perish (1)....
"Our madness is methodical and armed:
it borrows for its all-destructive purpose
the scientist's brain, the manufacturer's greed,
the statesman's guile, the hates of creeds and nations; (2)" . . .
Sale, Kirkpatrick (1986). "The Forest for the Trees: Can Today's Environmentalists Tell the Difference?" Mother Jones, November, pp. 25-33+. "It is a slippery word, ecology, and I use it with some caution, because all too often it has lost its meaning. Recently, for example, I got a pamphlet in the mail advertising a conference titles "The Ecology of Work' that turned out to be about how to design productive office systems. Not long ago on an eastern university campus a student chided me for walking across the lawn, 'Hey, man, don't step on the ecology.' Newspapers like the New York Times use the word in connection with nature because it fits in headlines.

"But ecology does not mean offices or grass, and it is not interchangeable with environment, as the fashion has it. It is, first of all, an academic branch of biology, the study of organisms and their interactions within an environment — especially of communities of species in some particular segment or niche of that environment — and how they relate independently. It is by extension a description of a philosophical, and in a sense political, position that seeks not merely to study but to preserve such communities in their healthiest state. This means interpreting the concept of interdependence so that it includes, and thus limits, the activities of the human species.

"What we have ultimately is a moral and ethical belief system that seeks to supplant the long-dominant Western commitment to anthropocentrism — the human first, and dominant — with a new appreciation of ecocentrism — the human is just another species in the natural web, having no special claim to the resources of the earth, certainly no claim to control or exploit them, and decidedly no right to threaten their very continuation. That means, in the wonderful phrase of Father Thomas Berry, 'a reinvention of the human at the species level (26 & 28).'

"It is ecology in this sense, this profound sense, that informs — and impassions — the New Geologists. And no wonder it is raising so many hackles. George Sessions, a professor of philosophy at Sierra College in California and a prominent academic champion of the new perspective, asserts that it 'shows us that the basic assumptions upon which the modern urban-industrial edifice of Western culture rests are erroneous and highly dangerous. An ecologically harmonious social paradigm shift is going to require a total reorientation of the thrust of Western culture (28).'"

Seamon, David (1984). "Emotional Experience of the Environment." American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 27, No. 6, July/August, pp. 757-770. "In exploring and identifying the care and concern underlying a relationship of responsibility between person and environment, phenomenological research on emotional bonds takes on important practical value, since a major need today is a way to foster a stronger, more positive attitude toward ecology and the environment (758). . . . If one accepts [the poet] Wordsworth's suggestion that education emphasizing emotional contact with environment has at least an indirect role in fostering heightened encounter, it becomes important for the environmental educator to fin practical programs, especially in childhood, for promoting affective contact with nature, environment, and place (769)."

Schuler, Michael A (1989). "Natural Compassion": Readings and Commentary. Madison, WI: First Unitarian Society, sermon delivered Feb. 5. "The plain fact is, if we examine the ordinary behavior of human beings, it appears that compassion is less our virtue than it is other creatures. After all, we, not they, are the ones who are making this planet unfit for habitation; we are the ones who developed nuclear weapons and who coined the phrases 'genocide' and 'holocaust.' Nevertheless, if compassion is universal, then we too possess it. And if we possess it, we can cultivate it, expanding our love until it becomes more and more a factor in our everyday lives. I don't want to belabor the point that compassion can be a powerful cohesive force among living things. But I do leave you with this challenge: If porpoises and wolves can be charitable, so can we (4)!"

Sylvan, Richard & David Bennett (1988). "Taoism and Deep Ecology." The Ecologist, Vol. 18, Nos. 4/5. pp. 148-159. "Taoism is throughout ecologically oriented; a higher level of ecological consciousness is built and it provides the practical basis for a way of life whose main tenet is 'Follow Nature' (148).

"... Taoism advances many themes which conflict with entrenched Western standards — strength and power, for example, are devalued [then why on page 155 do they accept "knowledge is power" as a Taoist view?], whilst characteristically feminine and child-like attributes are held up as important to living well and achieving Taoist self-realization, te. Taoism was thus prepared for ecofeminism in a way that Deep Ecology was not. Taoism is highly critical of patriarchy, accepting in effect the main anti-chauvinistic themes of ecofeminism. By contrast, there has been continuing conflict between Deep Ecology and ecofeminism. In its formative days. Deep Ecology did not recognize legitimate feminine aspirations or the reality of sexual domination, and it took no account of the central theme of ecofeminism, namely the striking parallel between the domination of women and the domination of nature. In Taoism, however, the traditional Chinese balance between yanq and yin swings, when in disequilibrium, towards the yin. In contrast with the Western paradigm, one properly aims at yin (which represents the complex of supposedly feminine features) rather than at yanq (symbolizing, among other things, the masculine complex). . . . Historically, where it began to be put into practice, Taoism worked for sexual freedom and liberation of women (154)....

"Taoism makes [an] attack on traditional education and on the accumulation of knowledge. . . . The attack on knowledge acquisition, though, in part, like the attack on conventional education ... is an attack on entrenched knowledge in the hands of a power group. But, in an organic society, knowledge is integrated into the community and not rarified into a commodity held or controlled by a priesthood or a class of intellectuals or literati. Knowledge is power; such power is removed from the hands of a few by making it a community good. This goes beyond Deep Ecology, in that it questions and rejects experts. Indeed in its criticism of schooling, narrow expertise, and the like. Taoism resembles and anticipates the position taken by Illich rather than the features of Deep Ecology.

"Taoism is not against pure knowledge, but rather against slickness and cleverness, against devious and crafty uses of knowledge, against the counter-productive acquisition of knowledge or cunning, and its teaching. In the Chuanq Tzu an apposite distinction is made between small knowledge, which is inquisitive, partial, discriminative or merely analytic, and great knowledge, which is 'leisurely and at ease,' comprehensive, extensive, and synthetic. Even so, original Taoism hardly seems to cater for adequate access to information, and the removal of (perhaps debilitating) ignorance, concerning health and welfare, careful and damaging practices, choices and alternatives (155)."

Urdang, Laurence (1989). The Dictionary of Confusable Words. New York: Ballantine Books, December, 393 pp. "Ecology/environment; ecology is the scientific study of the interrelationships between organisms and their environment; another word for it is bionomics. Environment is the sum total of the conditions and the surroundings, especially in relation to organisms of a given area. Possibly because ecology is a fashionable word, some people use it to mean 'environment,' but the two do not mean the same thing and they offer the opportunity for useful distinctions (120)."

9, Anonymous (1989). [See above at #4] "I totally agree that learning has to be a nurturing process. Currently there's too much manure being dumped on learners regardless of their education level.

"Now I understand the concept of eco-systems as being a finite set of conditions that enables different organisms to exist within it. I can appreciate that finite resources are apparent in education in terms of physical hardware, capital and the number of students. However I question the finite nature of human resources that emerge from the education pod, the number of creative thoughts, ideas and challenges that arise through being 'educated' in some way. Perhaps the standardized tests that are in practice are in fact inhibiting human development, perhaps that's why we're no further ahead than say twenty or thirty years ago in terms of developing critical thinkers."
Eliot, T.S (1934). The Rock. A pageant play. Choruses from Act I:
Where is the Life we have lost in living?
Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?
Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?

Ohliger, John (1989). Wit and Humor in Adult Education. Madison, WI: Basic Choices, Inc. 100 page bibliography (275 items). $13.00 from Basic Choices.

Pedley, Ethel (1899) Dot and the Kangaroo. Sydney, Australia: 1899. First read excerpts of this in The Australian Collection; Australia's Greatest Books, by Geoffrey Dufcton (North Ryde, NSW, Australia: Angus & Robertson, 1985), which whet my appetite for this "children's" book which makes the point that "It is not right that [humans] should learn too much." Got the "commemorative edition" published in 1986 by Angus & Robertson.

"'You must not eat any more of those berries,' said the Kangaroo, anxiously. 'Why?' asked Dot. 'They are very nice, and I'm very hungry.' The Kangaroo gently took the spray out of Dot's hand and threw it away. 'You see,' she said, 'If you eat too many of them, you'll know too much.' 'One can't know too much,' argued the little girl. 'Yes, you can, though,' said the Kangaroo, quickly. 'If you eat too many of those berries, you'll learn too much, and that gives you indigestion, and then you become miserable. I don't want you to be miserable any more, for I'm going to find your "lost way".'" (59 in The Australian Collection which comments on the same page: "All the great children's books can be read by people of all ages, for what comes naturally as fantasy to a child can also liberate the imagination in an adult fed all day on harsh reality. However, Dot and the Kangaroois most unusual in that it quite deliberately refers fantasy back to reality. It is meant to make both children and their parents think about what today is considered to be a very modern issue — conservation)"...

From the book itself [obtained from The Australian Book Source, % Susan Curry, 1309 Redwood Lane, Davis, CA 95616, phone (916) 753-1519]: [Said the Platypus,] "That's the way Humans amuse themselves. They write booksabout things they don't understand, and each new book says all the others are wrong. It's a silly game (28)."

VandenBroeck, Goldian, editor (1978). Less Is More; The Art of Voluntary Poverty. Preface by E.F. Schumacher. NY: Harper Colophon Books, 1978. An anthology of quotations and excerpts. Chapter 13 (pp. 171-181) is called "Applied Poverty: Education." It includes quotes from John Locke, Aristotle, Emerson, William James, Montaigne, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, Diogenes, and Ivan Illich.

Ziegler, Warren L (1982). "The Quest for a Fully Human Policy for the Education of Adults." In Issues in Education for Adults #1; Policy Issues and Process. Whaples, Gene C & William M. Rivera, eds. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, Dept. of Agricultural and Extension Education, pp. 47-60. "There is a more powerful impediment [to fully human learning] than educational credentials, which in any event are probably losing their grip as we increasingly become an over-credentialed society. It is the educational device which promotes knowledge rather than inquiry. Knowledge and its dissemination is a great impediment to fully human learning, because we have come to understand knowledge as closure, as certainty, as power. Its possession places one person in hegemony over another. Inquiry, on the other hand, tends to be more of a facilitating, enabling, open-ended activity. Knowledge does not promote choice. Inquiry does.
"Note how young persons, very much including infants engaged in intentional language learning, inquire all over the place until the oldsters tell them to stop. The first time a youngster is punished for asking a question or rewarded for not asking one is the advent of social knowledge over fully human learning. Social knowledge — the knowledge of what is required of us to acquire and maintain our membership in a society — is what education is all about. It is unlikely that we shall uncover educational policies which promote inquiry, for to do so raises too many questions about who and what we are, too many questions about violence, about prejudice, about alternative states of consciousness, about love, about injustice, about human deprivation, about environmental imbalances, etc (56)."

10. Bash, Joe (1980). "The Flamingo Who Learned to Keep Things in Proportion." Second Thoughts, Vol. 2, No. 3, April. Bash is (or was?) a Lutheran minister and adult educator with the University of Minnesota. About a flamingo who is conned into taking useless continuing education courses by a fish, a fisherman, and a swan. However, after getting wise and rejecting the classes, he takes a course in "Human Relations" when the fisherman swears at him for doing so.
Beder, Hal (1987). "Dominant Paradigms, Adult Education, and Social Justice." Adult Education Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 2, Winter, pp. 105-113. "In this article, it is argued that capitalism and empiricism are dominant and implicit social paradigms that profoundly affect adult education in the United States in often deleterious ways (105).... The paradigms exist because they fulfill vital purposes, yet as all paradigms, they contain anomalies. The societies in which these paradigms exist claim to be 'just' and free. Yet inequality exists and the restrictions of freedom denied the political sector are often merely granted to the economic sector. Moreover, the wealth enjoyed by industrialized countries is to a significant extent at the expense of less fortunate countries occupying low status in the world division of labor (112)." . . .
Chesterton, 1950, See above at #4.

Committee of Inquiry, Ohio State University (1970). Testimony for the Committee of Enquiry. Ohio State University closed down briefly in the midst of a student strike in the spring of 1970. I was called to testify as a faculty member of the strike negotiations committee along with others at a hearing on July 1st. Here are brief excerpts from a 41 page transcript of that day's proceedings. Available from Ohliger. "OHLIGER: We need to completely reexamine the purpose of the University, which is typically seen as the production and transmission of knowledge, and the preparation of professionals. ... We should start paying attention to the whole person, worry less about disciplinary boundaries, and be more concerned with producing courageous and good men and women, who will constantly reexamine the basis of their own existence and the structure of society (3). . . . The statement was made that the 'outside agitators' want to destroy the University. Everyone immediately assumed that this was some horrible thing — destroying the University? ... It would be a worthwhile imaginative exercise for this Committee to explore what this country would be like if it had no universities or colleges. ... We seem to assume that because an institution exists, it should exist. Maybe it shouldn't. At least it's worth asking" (25).

Conrad, David R (1976). Education for Transformation: Implications in Lewis Mumford's Ecohumanism. Palm Springs, CA: ETC Publications, 230 pp. "Teacher education centered around Mumford themes would be radically different from today's teacher training. One clear example of the difference is mentioned in The Transformations of Man [sic]. 'One World' teacher rejects mechanical efficiency and fragmentation;'One World teacher' is, Mumford asserts, 'just the opposite of the competent technician.' And yet much of teacher education is geared toward training the 'competent technician,' the expert in classroom management and behavioral objectives. The industrial or factory model is revered as teachers are trained to chisel learning into bit parts (7). . . .

"Mumford recognizes the disturbing paradox in the principal of mass education: 'From the beginning, the humanitarian ideal of a systematic education for all was combined with a mechanical pedagogy that invalidated it.' The weakness of mass education appears in the present mechanization of education through regurgitating knowledge in examinations, especially through evaluation based on objective examinations corrected by machines. Much of the difficulty stems from New World ideology, he believes, an ideology centered on capitalist cupidity and mechanistic models. Because of the anti-personal, anti-conrounal bias of the New World ideology, virtually all the means of liberation — including technology — tended to work against rather than for liberation [from Mumford's "Architecture as a Home for Man [sic]." Architectural Record, Feb. 1968, p. 114]. The underlying aim of New World education is: 'the fabrication of Mechanical Man: one who will accept the mechanical world picture, who will submit himself to mechanical discipline, who in thought and act will enlarge the empire of the machine [from Mumford's "Function and Expression in Architecture." Architectural Record, Nov. 1951, p. 196].' . . .

"'Education becomes quantitative: domination of the cram-machine and encyclopedia, and domination of megalopolis as concrete encyclopedia: all-containing. Knowledge divorced from life: industry divorced from life-utility: life itself compartmentalized, dis-specialized, finally disorganized and enfeebled [from Mumford's The Culture of Cities. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1938, pp. 289-290].'"
Ehrenreich, Barbara (1988). "Stop Beaching, Think Positive: First Person Secular." Mother Jones, October, p. 8. "I used to get so depressed about the environment. Like last summer, when we just had to get to the beach because of the greenhouse effect, but you couldn't go in the water because of all the syringes and bloody IV tubing washing up in the surf. . . . But I feel much better since I joined my Environmental Grief Counseling Group, which is a wonderful New Age approach to gaining the personal security you need in a world if melting ice caps, shrinking rain forests, and toxic lakes.

"The first thing we learned is that the environment is all just a matter of attitude. In fact, you can think of your attitude as your 'inner environment,' which can be as fresh and green and perky as you like, even when the Great Lakes turn to solid waste and the Himalayas are placed on smog alert.

"It's just not touchy-feely either in Environmental Grief Counseling: everyone's encouraged to do something so long as it's something really manageable where you can make a difference. That's why we've all gotten involved in the anti-smoking movement these days.

". . .Of course there's always some twisted character in the group who likes to point out that if we'd spent half as much energy on the capital-E Environment as we did on cigarette smoke, maybe we wouldn't have to make our ice cubes out of Evian water today. Suppose, she says, we'd gone after the polluters with our water pistols, or lobbied for Styrofoam-free sections of McDonald's. Or passed a law making the plutonium manufacturers, Union Carbide, and the other eco-criminals sit all cramped up in the back of the airplane with the cigarette smokers. Maybe we'd be wind-surfing right now instead of sitting around in Grief Counseling passing the Kleenex box. . . .

"But the most liberating thing I've learned in Environmental Grief Counseling is when to let go, say good-bye, and stand on your own two feet. I mean, human beings have been clinging to the environment for aeons now, creeping around on the rocks, eating the berries, filling their tires with air. This is dependency, and dependency is a form of addiction. What the human race needs is a heavy-duty 12 step program to wake us up to the fact that the environment is just a crutch — a great big security blanket that we can finally set aside. In fact, the dependency goes both ways. Think of all those sequoias huddling in state parks, not to mention all the endangered species begging for a soft berth in a public zoo. And what about the rain forests gouging themselves on our carbon dioxide?

"... Some of us get all weepy when we think about the Gaia Hypothesis, the idea that the earth is a big furry goddess-creature who resembles everybody's mom in that she knows what's best for us. But if you look at the historical record — Krakatoa, Mt. Vesuvius, Hurricane Charley, poison ivy, and so forth down the ages — you have to ask yourself: Whose side is she on, anyway? And even if you love your mom, does that mean you have to live with her, forever?

"I'll admit I still get a tiny bit depressed when I try to think about it from her point of view. Imagine spending four billion years stocking the oceans with seafood, filling the ground with fossil fuels, and drilling the bees in honey production — only to produce a race of bed-wetters!

"Maybe we're not a hundred-percent ready to set aside the environment and strike out on our own as a species. Maybe we should do something while there's still time, something really militant; like, maybe we should make buttons saying, "Thank you for not dumping, defecating, or defoliating. Thanks awfully!'"
Hoinacki, Lee (1989). "Parenting in an Age of Alienation." National Catholic Reporter, February 24, pp. 1 & 12. "This invention — schooling — is the most rigid, lengthy and abstract form ever conceived in history for introducing the young to their society. In no known civilization have the guardians devised such a universal and penetrating scheme. The inflexibility of its structure, the years taken from a young person's life, the confusing mixture of abstract principles and quite specific punishments are without precedent. I am awed and frightened by the sheer magnitude of the presumption.

"And now society conspires with the education professionals to establish 16 years seated at a desk as the bare minimum requirement to work and exist in the modern state. And such a norm allows 'our betters' to stigmatize the dropout as a needy creature. They cannot imagine that he has successfully escaped from the archetypically restrictive and cruel prison of modernity.

"All ideologies of modernization make one demand and hold out one promise. To enter the modern world, a society must construct a school system, basically identical throughout the planet. But the return, it is claimed, far outweighs the cost: Citizens will enjoy liberty! The genius of our age is to have discovered a universal method, valid for all peoples, to prepare youth to participate in the most complex and sophisticated society ever seen on earth.

"The constraints, limits and cautions of tradition and history, lately incarnated in 'backward' villages, towns and isolated groups, have been definitively removed to permit freedom to flourish. With ignorance banished and learning 'rationally' institutionalized, we finally become persons who make choices! Thus rad the script of received orthodoxy.

"This has to be one of the most perverse and cruel illusions of modernity. And, ironically, the institution specifically responsible for transforming the possibility of freedom into a problematic question is the school.

"All young people are forced to learn and accept that an institution can categorize, grade, certify and/or disqualify them on the basis of that institution's assumptions, methods and criteria. And there is no recourse from its judgments, no further court of appeal. Unless parents exercise a kind of madness, rescuing their children from the classroom and letting them learn to make actual choices, the young person necessarily grows up, in Paul Goodman's phrase, 'absurd.' ...

"Today, schoolmen have convinced everyone that we are created homo monolinguis. We are told that this means we can aspire to learn to speak with only one voice. Therefore, there can exist only one education — schools. But once one steps outside the closed circularity of the assumption and 'argument,' its falsity is evident."

Hook, Sidney (1989). "The Closing of the American Mind: An Intellectual Best Seller Revisited," The American Scholar, Winter, pp. 123-135. "Hume long ago showed that there is no such thing as pure reason, that it always acts in the context of interest and passion. Thereafter a whole brigade of thinkers, including Dewey and Freud (one of the few things they have in common) showed that the cultivation of reason or intelligence, by establishing new behavior or habit patterns, can modify and reorder the interests and passions to avoid self- and socially destructive consequences. Utopian fools believe that this can be done easily. It is just as foolish to believe that it is altogether impossible, that nothing can be done by intelligent nurture and education. . . . Universities may DISCUSS all the proposals but officially advocate none. It is not likely in their present politicialized state that their faculties are likely to have better ideas than the trade unions, churches, political parties, or any randomly selected group of literate citizens (131-132).... Although I reject Allan Bloom's analysis of what is wrong with higher education in our day, and therefore I reject as well his remedies, I nonetheless wish to pay tribute to his good will and intellectual effort, which has succeeded in arousing the country to the necessity, at long last, of a serious debate on what a serious education for modern men and women should be (135)."

Illich, Ivan (1983). Eco-Pedagogics and the Commons; Draft for Discussion with Jerry Morris. Cuernavaca, Mexico: Tecno-Politica, April 1. Available in Basic Choices in Adult Education (pp. 106-115) from Ohliger. "... The ideal of the enlightenment of the 'human' molecule is now fading. It is fading for two reasons: first, because many of us recognize that it has a dark future, second, because we understand that its descendance from past ideals is much less legitimate than we assumed. Far from fundamental desiderata, both E and D [education and development] might be nothing but useful supplements that ought to be soberly taken. The transition from growth to steady state does not have to be predicated on Homo Economicus whose every need for learning and survival must be satisfied through the social production, of education and goods.

"How shall I call the opposite project: the reconquest of the right to live in self-limiting communities that each treasure their own mode of subsistence. Pressed, I would call this project the recovery of the commons. Commons, in custom and law, refer to a kind of space which is fundamentally different from the space of which most ecologists speak. Biologists speak of habitats and economists of a receptacle containing resources and opportunities. The public environment is opposed to the private home. Both are not what 'commons' mean. Commons are a cultural space that lies beyond my threshold and this side of wilderness. ... I am not suggesting that it is possible to re-create the old commons. But lacking any better analogy I speak of the recovery of the commons, to indicate how, at least conceptually, we could move beyond our sacred cows. Truly subsistence-oriented action transcends economic space, it reconstitutes the commons. This is as true for speech that recovers common language as for action that recovers commons from the environment."

"Infoglut (1982): Who Said Indians Don't Have a Sense of Humor?" Second Thoughts, Vol. 5, No. 1, December, pp. 1-2. Published by Basic Choices and available from Ohliger. "We agree with Michael Marien in the Sept. 1st Journal of Humanistic Psychology: "The pervasive condition that must be faced is the fact that we live in an age of infoglut. Another book, journal, conference, or newsletter will not necessarily help people, and might simply add to the pervasive problem of information overload and fragmentation.' It's high time we asked you to join us in questioning the value of all these gatherings and publications, in examining the dynamics behind their proliferation, and in seeking some criteria for their approprlateness."

"Infoglut (1983) Responses" Second Thoughts, Vol. 5, No. 2, March, pp. 1-5. Published by Basic Choices and available from Ohliger. "The article . . . drew five times more replies than any previous one — 35 letters from 15 states, Canada, and Africa — and elicited a variety of perspectives from which to view INFOGLUT:."

Leacock, Stephen (1940). Too Much College, Or, Education Eating Up Life, Dodd, Mead & Co. The great Canadian humorist and scholar takes up the cudgels against extended schooling while supporting lifelong learning. From the preface: "This book is based on an experience of nearly twenty years of school and college training, ten years of school-teaching, thirty-six years of college lecturing, and three years of retirement to think it over. The opinion that I have reached is that education, in the narrow sense of school and college attendance, is taking too heavy a toll of the years of life and that the curriculum should be shortened. But, in the wider sense, what I want to advocate is not to make education shorter, but to make it much longer — indeed to make it last as long as life itself.

"What I find wrong is the stark division now existing between the years of formal education and entry into the work of life. Education has become to a great extent a mere acquirement of a legal qualification to enter a closed profession, in place of being a process undertaken for its own sake. All that is best in education can only be acquired by spontaneous interest; thus gained it lasts and goes on. Education merely imposed as a compulsory prerequisite to something else finishes and withers when its task is done. Real education should mean a wonderful beginning, a marvelous initiation, a thorough "smattering," and life will carry it on (vii). . . .

"The practical person asks how we are supposed to bring about this vastly altered program. To abolish overnight our whole system of examinations, promotions and graded classes moving all together would leave our education a hopeless mess. And to this the only answer is there is nothing that we can do about it, nothing particular and all of a minute.

"It is our current fault always to think in terms of deliberate regulation and ordinance. We seek to accomplish friendship with a league. Mother's Day with a statute, welcome with a by-law and sobriety with a code. Without the spirit, all falls in a littered heap. If education is to change, there must first come the consciousness of the need of change (ix)." . . .

Marchand, Philip (1989). Marshall McLuhan; The Medium and the Messenger. New York: Ticknor & Fields. "In 1970 when North American campuses were in turmoil over Nixon's invasion of Cambodia and the Kent State shootings, McLuhan predicted that the generation of students who had been raised from infancy on television would arrive on campus in two or three years and complete the job of tearing down all the campus bricks and mortar, so profound would be their alienation from pretelevision institutions (208).... There was also, according to McLuhan, very little difference between 'war as education and education as war.' The Vietnam War was a kind of all-out educational effort to westernize Eastern culture. At the same time, the education of the young in the West was similarly rife with aggression in its attempt to impose on students 'the patterns we find convenient to ourselves and consistent with the available technologies (209).'"
Modra, Helen (1989). "Peace Begins with Me: Some Thoughts on Pedagogy and Violence." Education Links (Australia), #36, pp. 27-29. "The fact that there is always a gap between what I believe in and what happens in my classes, really disturbs me. . . . Why did I push the undergraduates so hard, last Thursday, that I gave myself a migraine? . . . Why did I almost lose my temper the day two dozen 18 year olds found it difficult to concentrate on an audiocassette for 40 minutes? . . . What can I say to a mature age student who is beginning to explore her own difficulties around the issue of control, when I have such control over her, as the-party-who-awards-grades-unilaterally? . . . And how can I reconcile my commitment to liberation theology with my failure, so often, to see the suffering of my own students and my own part in this (27)? ...

"Does education recognize the role of sense, of feeling? Do we as teachers pay heed? When I give myself a migraine in class I am alienated from my senses. When dominated by my own drivenness I am hardly aware of students. They are not a sensible presence. Not just my own well-being then, but the very possibility of community, requires the healing of the body/mind dualism (28)." Write Helen Modra at School of Education, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia 3217.

Mumford, Lewis (1980). Quoted in: Woodward, Kathleen. The Myths of Information: Technology and Postindustrial Culture. Madison, WI: Coda Press. "Unfortunately, 'information retrieval,' however swift, is no substitute for discovering by direct personal inspection knowledge whose very existence one had possibly never been aware of, and following it at one's own pace through the further ramification of relevant literature. But ... if books . . . continue their present rate of production, [their] multiplication . . . actually magnifies the central problem — that of coping with quantity — and postpones the real solution, which must be conceived on quite other than purely mechanical lines; namely, by reassertion of human selectivity and moral self-discipline, leading to continent productivity. Without such self-imposed restraints the over-production of books will bring about a state of intellectual enervation hardly to be distinguished from massive ignorance (xiii) [from Mumford's The Pentagon of Power (1970)."

Narr, Wolf-Dieter (1984). "Toward a Society of Conditioned Reflexes," in Observations on "The Spiritual Situation of the Age". Jurgen Habermas, editor. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. "It is no coincidence that formulas of pseudo-progressive pedagogies such as 'learning to learn' are circulating today. They give pronounced expression to the not particularly novel insight that personal life experiences are not sufficient to enable individuals to find their way. The complimentary formula reads: 'lifelong education.'

These slogans, which represent the ecstasy of modern pedagogical thinking, clearly express more than the mere recognition of a lack of continuity. The authoritarian fanfare over substance and meaning, typical of older forms of pedagogy, is superseded by a process-oriented pedagogy: everything is in flux, and process pedagogics teach the art of permanent leave-taking.

"Education itself becomes a process without substance, or a process whose substance has already been supplied by the general societal development. The educational purpose is delegated, and the legacy of the Enlightenment is abandoned in favor of the ordinary diet of postmodern social respectability. Just as modern technologies disdain epistemological considerations, banishing them to the realm of metaphysics or affixing them with the all-purpose adhesive of ideology, so this form of pedagogy disdains the discussion of ends and reference points.

"Emancipation is itself emancipated from the pedagogic subject, the lifelong pupil. 'Only he who changes is my kinsman.' Learning loses its appropriate character, which in certain circumstances could also inculcate resistance against new and different forms of learning (italics added). It becomes a multiple-choice exercise for which any instrument is acceptable. Such education does not instill an ability to process personal experiences and expand upon them through the incorporation of general human experiences taken from elsewhere; it makes the lack of general human experience into a pedagogical principle (176)."

Ohliger, John (1974). "Is Lifelong Education a Guarantee of Permanent Inadequacy?" Convergence, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1974, pp. 47-58. From the abstract in ERIC for EJ 105 394: "The author maintains that adult education has become a coercive force which governs the life of North Americans and threatens the rest of the world, directed by technocrats, politicians, and established institutions in the name of equal opportunity but with the actual aim of consolidating the established social order."

Ohliger, John (1981). Must We All Go Back to School? Talk on October 15th to the annual Minnesota Education Association Convention — National Education Association (NEA) affiliate in Minneapolis. Condensed version published in The Educator; Journal of Tennessee Alliance for Continuing Higher Education, Vol. 3, No. 3, March 1983, pp. 12-14. "Is Mandatory Continuing Education (MCE) for teachers a good idea? For a tentative response I need to turn to the medical model for a moment. It is well known that the medical establishment does not take care of its own. For instance, drug addiction, alcoholism, arri suicide rates for some medical personnel are among the highest in the land [e.g. see "Doctors, Lawyers Need Anti-Drug Rules — Bennett," Associated Press story out of Washington in The State Journal-Register (Springfield, IL), July 5, 1989, p. 1. "Dr. Douglas Talbot, who has a drug treatment facility in Atlanta, says the addiction rate for all people — for all substances, including alcohol — is about 10 percent, while the rate for health professionals is 17 percent to 19 percent. Few of those are addicted solely to alcohol, he said."] Can we draw an analogy to the educational establishment? Do teachers, administrators, school boards, colleges of education, and professional educational associations rate as poorly as medicine when it comes to the educational 'health' of their own folks. It could be. It's no secret that inservice programs for teachers do not have the best reputation possible, even among educators. Jack Ferver, Head of Education Extension for the University of Wisconsin, puts it very diplomatically: "The inservice and staff development aspect of education for the most part is still commonly regarded as the least well developed aspect of the entire field of education.' Adult education professor Alan Knox also at the University of Wisconsin, who has written a great deal on professional development, emphatically agrees with this low assessment of inservice education. Why is inservice education so poorly done? I think that, both for medicine and for education, it may be because health and learning require and benefit from only minimal institutional attention. In pursuit of the commercial and mega-corporate values Ralph Nader underlined this morning, and to fulfill the industrial dream, we have built up massive educational and medical institutions which end up cannibalizing their own. As Ivan Illich puts it: "The values which industrial society destroys are precisely those which it cherishes (6).'"

Ohliger, John (1985). "The Final Solution to Learning Opportunities." Tranet, No. 37. "Don't get me wrong. I live and breathe education most of my days, but I see it as a sacred and delicate delight only subtly approachable. It is certainly not a sledgehammer solution to our personal or social crises."

Popkewitz, Thomas (1989). "Educational Research and Its Social Context." Keynote Address to the Adult Education Research Conference, Univ. of Wl-Madison, April 27, Madison, WI. "The more we engage in educational reform, the less education becomes what we want it to be."

Satin, Mark (1989). "Our Schools Need Imagination More Than They Need Money." New Options, No. 59, May 29, pp. 1-4. "Typically, 'progressives' and change agents have demanded more ' money for social programs. But today it's clear that the way we do things needs to change — and that if things were done more appropriately, more humanely, more intelligently, we might end up spending less on social programs than we do now.

"Take education. Over the last 25 years, the number of students enrolled in our elementary and secondary schools has varied very little (from a high of 51 billion in 1970 to a low of 44 billion in 1985). But we spent $30 billion on elementary and secondary education in 1966; $72 billion in 1975; and $159 billion in 1986.

"That means spending on education has increased more than one and one-half times as fast as inflation since 1965. And what have we gotten in return? A generation's worth of declining test scores. . . .
"The Democratic party thinks it knows how to turn things around. In its 1988 platform it calls for (surprise, surprise) spending even more on education — the same kind of education we have now. There isn't even a hint that the ways we educate our children might be part of the problem!

"According to the Democrat's logic, the problem isn't with the educational system but with us. We're so damn greedy. We're just not willing to spend what it takes.

"Over the last 10 years or so, a handful of education reformers have operated by a different sort of logic. They've come up with exciting new ideas for changing the ways our schools are administered, the ways our children are taught, and the kinds of things they're taught. • • •

"To some of you, what we've written above may seem as 'controversial' as mom and apple pie. So it's important to see how the real world sees it. Virtually every interest group in the education profession is opposed to most of what we've written. So is much of American culture. • • •

"Before we see substantial movement in the direction of teacher empowerment, smaller schools, education with production, etc., we may first have to see a change in the values and goals of the larger society. Which is to say; We may have to foster a political movement. One that doesn't blame most of our social problems on lack of money."

Shaw, Bernard (1910). "Parents and Children (Misalliance 1910)." Prefaces by Bernard Shaw. London: Constable & Co., 1934, p. 74. "Soon everybody will be schooled, mentally and physically, from the cradle to the end of the term of adult compulsory military service, and finally of compulsory civil service lasting until the age of superannuation. Always more schooling, more compulsion. We are to be cured by an excess of the dose that has poisoned us. . . . Clearly this will not due. We must reconcile education with liberty." Quoted in:

Ohliger, John (1983). "Reconciling Education with Liberty." Prospects (UNESCO Quarterly Journal of Education), Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 161-179. "Bernard Shaw wrote those words over 70 years ago. Today 'more schooling, more compulsion' engulfs the lives of many millions of adults in the United States, Europe, and other parts of the world. In the zealous pursuit of lifelong education liberty has been left behind and with it much of the modest but real value of education itself. The trend toward compulsory lifelong schooling is most evident in the United States. Millions of adults in over seventy categories are now required to go back to school to maintain a professional license, to keep a job, or ordered to submit to therapeutic education to remedy a deficiency (161)."

Sullivan, Dennis (1972A). Working Paper Delivered at a Conference on "Institutions of Higher Education; A Resource in the Solution of National Problems." Sponsored by the American Association of Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, funded by the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., May 8, 9 pages. "The exorbitant inflation of academic analysis cures social ills no better than sophisticated diagnosis remedies our physical ailments. In both cases, the main effect is to make us more dependent on doctors. ... If the principal beneficiary of modern medicine is the drug industry, then the principal beneficiary of the modern educational system is the information industry: and both drugs and information are extraordinarily effective instruments for depoliticizing human community. Beyond a certain point, both disarm people of the ability to do anything for themselves; we get hooked to dependency on those who regulate the flow of melioratives. Some medicine is certainly necessary to maintain health; some information is needed to know what's going on; but our unlimited production of both does little else than convince people that only the erudite can live. It is a new kind of magic."
Wagoner, David (1975) "The Lesson." In Modern Poetry of Western America, Clinton Larson & William Stafford, editors. (Brigham Young University Press, 1975). Includes: "That promising morning/ Driving beside the river,/ I saw twin newborn lambs/ still in a daze/ ... I found myself in a rage/ two-thirds up haystack mountain/ being buzzed and ricochetted/ by metallic whir."
Widmer, Kingsley (1980). Paul Goodman. Boston: Twayne Publishers. "Free universal education, a longtime anarchist demand in enlightenment faith, has turned into hierarchically controlling and indoctrinating 'School Systems' so that no seasoned libertarian (in contrast to 'liberals') now favors extended compulsory education. . . . The vast increase in mass schooling now rather more interferes with education, at the level of simple literacy as well as more sophisticated intellectuality, than advances it. . . . The change of scale, rather than evil motives, produces contrary effects. (Enlarging scale, one suspects, should itself be identified as an evil motive.) (50-51)."
11. Blumberg, Paul (1989). The Predatory Society: Deception in the American Marketplace. New York: Oxford University Press. "While conservatives blame social evils on the eternal corruption of the human soul, liberals are more optimistic and place greater faith in people's ability to improve themselves and their institutions. Education is one of the most popular remedies for a variety of social ills. So, in the wake of the extraordinary insider trading scandals of the 1980s, many suggested as one approach, more ethics courses in our business schools. A former chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission donated millions of dollars to the Harvard Business School for a program in ethics, and many other business schools strengthened their ethics course offerings. Although well-intentioned, this remedy rests on the dubious assumption that the reason people lie, cheat, and steal is because they never learned in school that it was wrong. Moreover, the problem with trying to prevent business crime by teaching ethics courses in college is that there are many forms of education besides what goes on in the classroom. An economic system that day after day demonstrates that deception can be made to pay is likely to be a far more effective teaching instrument than a few abstract lessons taught in the classroom."
12. Watson, Keith (1988). "Forty Years of Education and Development: From Optimism to Uncertainty." Educational Review, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1988, pp. 137-174. A massive literature review of over 250 items. "There is undoubtedly a requestioning of the place of education in socio-economic development, not least because of the financial constraints faced by many countries. Gone is the euphoria of earlier years, especially during the late 1950s and 1960s. Champion Ward call this 'the age of innocence.' Instead, the 1980s have been have been tempered with a sense of realism, perhaps skepticism. In some quarters this has amounted to disillusionment bordering on despair (138)."
World Commission on Environment and Development (1987). Our Common Future. New York: Oxford University Press. (Commonly known as the "Brundtland Report," after its chair, Gro Harlem Brundtland, then Prime Minister of Norway. When Adrian Blunt of the University of Saskatchewan's Dept of Communications, Continuing & Vocational Education, sent this he wrote: "I hope you will agree that it is a very significant document deserving the attention of all adult educators.") From Gro Harlem Brundtland's Foreword: "There was a time of optimism and progress in the 1960s, when there was greater hope for a braver new world, and for progressive international ideas. . . . The 1970s slid slowly into moods of reaction and isolation. . . . The present decade has been marked by a retreat from social concerns. Scientists bring to our attention urgent but complex problems bearing on our very survival: a warming globe, threats to the Earth's ozone layer, deserts consuming agricultural land. We respond by demanding more details, and by assigning the problems to institutions ill equipped to cope with them. . . . Despite official hope expressed on all sides, no trends identifiable today, no programs or policies, offer any real hope of narrowing the growing gap between rich and poor nations (x-xi)....

From the body of the report: "Few city governments in the developing world have the power, resources, and trained personnel to provide their rapidly growing populations with the land, services, and facilities needed for an adequate human life: clean water, sanitation, schools, and transport (17, repeated on 238)."

13. Karlenzig, Bruce (1989). Illich Revisited: An Interpretive Framework for Adult Education. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada: Unpublished master's thesis in the Dept. of Communications, Continuing and Vocational Education, University of Saskatchewan, 253 pp. From the abstract; "Illich's enduring contribution to the field . . . lies ... in his evolving critique of modernity, the cultural context in which education takes place. . . • Illich's work may be understood as the product of a stranger to modernity, a motif readily apparent within the arts, the social science, and adult education." Karlenzig can be reached at 14 Summers Place, Apt. 21, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan 37H 3W4, Canada.

14. Crawford, Reva (1982). "Inverted Parachutes." Second Thoughts, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 1+ "To halt Mandatory Continuing Education forever, just get a law passed making it illegal for those who have some education to get more until those who have none get some." Reva Crawford founded the National Indian Adult Education Association (NIAEA) in 1975.
Eisler, Riane (1987). The Chalice and The Blade; Our History, Our Future. San Francisco; Harper & Row. "In this book equalitarian is used instead of the more conventional egalitarian. The reason is that egalitarian has traditionally only described equality between men and men (as the works of Locke, Rousseau, and other 'rights of man' philosophers, as well as modern history, evidence). Equalitarian describes social relations in a partnership society where women and men (and 'masculine' and 'feminine') are accorded equal value. This is why this usage is increasing among feminists (p. 206, footnote 10)."

Heilbrun, Carolyn G (1988). Writing a Woman's Life. New York: W.W. Norton. "'The demand for education provides the emancipatory thrust of much 19th and 20th century feminism. .. . But this access to male dominated culture may equally be felt to bring with it alienation, repression, division — a silencing of the "feminine," a loss of women's inheritance. ... To propose a difference of view, a difference of standard — to begin to ask what the difference might be — is to call into question the very terms which constitute that difference.' Jacobus speaks of 'the rift experienced by women writers in a patriarchal society, where language itself may reinscribe the structures by which they are oppressed.' The 'demand of an impossible desire' [quotes from "The Difference in View." Mary Jacobus, Women Writing and Writing about Women. Mary Jacobus, editor. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1979, pp. 10-21] can condemn women to silence even when their entry to education and the professions seems to have permitted them utterance (40-41)."
15.Friedrich, Carl J (1950). The New Image of the Common Man [sic] . (Boston, Beacon Press). '"Common people are you and me. We are all common people when not concerned with our specialties. . . . Politics in a democracy is adult education, at least half the time."

Martin, Brian (1989). Demarchy; A Democratic Alternative to Electoral Politics. Wollongong East, Australia: By Lot, 16 pp. Available from By Lot, PO Box 492, Wollongong East, NSW 2520, Australia, phone (042) 287-860. "The Basic Idea: The present standard system of representative democracy is based on electing a small number of officials who then make decisions on a wide range of issues. Demarchy, by contrast, is based on a network of numerous decision-making groups. Each group deals with a specific function, such as transport, land use or health services in a local area. The membership of each body is chosen randomly from all those who volunteer to be on it. Random selection is also called the lot system, the jury system or sortition. Demarchy can also be called statistical democracy (1)."

Ohliger, John (1987). Too Much Education? With others. Forty-five minute broadcast by Australian Broadcasting Corporation, November. Available from Basic Choices. "Dean: Just about everybody now agrees that education is a good thing and so more education must be better. This view of things long held by educationists has lately been seized upon by politicians, business leaders, and newspaper columnists, and even those who are fiercely critical of our education system think we should have more of it. The massive education systems of Japan and the U.S. are held up as the example we must follow if the economy is to be revitalized and the nation saved. With me tonight to question this orthodoxy Professor John Ohliger, a distinguished educator from the most educated nation on earth. 'In zealous pursuit of lifelong education,' Professor John Ohliger has written, 'Liberty has been left behind and with it much of the modest but real value of education.' . . .
Dean: John Ohliger, you've argued that in the US there's something of a galloping disease which you call Mandatory Continuing Education.
JO: That means all those adults who are forced to go to school for one reason or another. They're alcoholics, bartenders, factory workers, physicians, prostitutes, prisoners, prison personnel, shoplifters — I can go on for at least 70 categories which represent, in my view, over half of the American adult population. . . .
Dean: I take it from the way in which you describe this phenomenon that you're not altogether happy with it.
JO: I am very unhappy with it. I'm also very rigid about it, which means that I have to work, because I'm a member of "fanatics anonymous." But I am not unhappy with the idea that any society would require a minimum of compulsory education — including that for adults. The problem is that it's gone so much farther than that. To Christians it violates the First Commandment. To us non-Christians it is insane. . . .
Dean: But I wonder if you're not conceding the point there, Carrol, and saying that really increased training and increased credentials are in the interest of the workers rather than of the work place. Now you would be aware I'm sure of the classic study that was done in the US about 15 years ago by Ivar Berg in which he argued that many workers had been over-trained and over-educated. And that not only did this not make them more productive but actually made them less productive. . . .
JO: Ivar Berg also said that there is no provable link between training for specialized competence and competence itself.
Dean: John Ohliger, you've argued that there is a problem. Do you have a solution?
JO: The first solution is to stop doing those things that don't work. Most MCE doesn't work. As prescribed it has not lowered the instance of the social problems for which it's been prescribed. For me the second step is the most difficult one. We live in a society in the US that talks about "do, do, do, do." We tend to play down the "be, be, be," and we have people like Sinatra and others what point out that it's "doobeedoobeedoo." We need to work towards the "be." The question, "What should we do?" is secondary in my view — as Sonia Johnson has pointed out — to the question, "How shall we be with each other?" And that can not be answered in simple, so-called practical, pragmatic terms.
Dean: Does that mean that you really haven't got a practical answer to offer?
JO: It means that I think the "practical-answer" approach is impractical. . . .
Dean: Is this just another example of the education-rich getting richer? . . .

Ohliger, John (1988). "The Best and Oldest Adult Ed Textbook." Adult & Continuing Education Today, Vol. 18, No. 10, May 9, p. 4. $1.00 from Basic Choices. "Adult ed textbooks come an go, but no textbook in the field has been in print longer than the one by Leonard Q. Ross. Still in print after more than 50 years, it has been praised by such literary greats as Evelyn Waugh, James Thurber, and Rebecca West. . . . You can pick up a paperback copy of The Education of H*Y*M*A*N K*A*P*L*A*N (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1937) at almost any bookstore. . . .

"The book illustrates that democracy is the rule of the common people — the commonness in us all — not rule by majority vote. Hyman Kaplan, the adult student, shows that anyone exercising native wisdom and common sense makes democracy work even in situations in which the expert (Mr. Parkhill, the teacher) knows much more. Thus democracy is viable if experts are kept in their proper place as helpers, not rulers." . . .

Rifkin, Jeremy (1987). Time Wars: The Primary Conflict in Human History. New York: Henry Holt and Co., p. 197. "The concept that everyone's time is equally valuable is truly revolutionary. The democratization of time leads to a very different social order, one in which time priorities and restraints are equitably shouldered. In such a society, everyone treats other people's time with the same regard as their own. The revaluation of time is a prerequisite to the revaluation of life."

Stone, I.F (1988). The Trial of Socrates. Boston: Little, Brown. "Except for Sparta and Crete, both ruled by warrior landlord minorities amid intimidated serfs, the Greek city-states tended toward democracy; Athens was its citadel. The Greeks coined the very word for it which all men [sic] everywhere still use - demokratia, rule by the demos or common people. Political equality rested on an equal right to speak freely (215)."

16. Domainque, Robert (1989). "DRAFT: We Must Resist the 'Algorithmization' of Education." In letter to Ohliger in July from Domaingue, 309-B Eagle Heights, Madison, WI 53705. Excerpts: "Algorithms pertain to numbers. In a computer an algorithm is a formula or set of instructions which a program follows in order to accomplish a given task. The machine can not break out of or alter the algorithms it is using. Charles Francois, in an article on artificial intelligence, writes, 'The gap between artificial and natural intelligence is gradually closing; therefore we have to constantly re-evaluate the difference between both forms ("Artificial Intelligence Is Becoming More Brainlike." International Federation for Systems Research Newsletter, Spring 1989, No. 22, pp. 1-2).' This view is held by a growing number of people in our society. Our views of ourselves are becoming more machine like. When we compare ourselves to machines, we find that computers outperform us in the sequential resolving of equations.

"We are of course far more complex than this but this complexity is ignored by artificial intelligence researchers. They focus on the algorithmic functions of the brain and ignore the other rich workings of the human brain. This limited scope can have dire consequences on our views of learning and education. Francois writes, 'The 'algorithmization' can be transferred from brain to brain, and is called instruction/education. . . . The algorithmic functions acquired by the brain tend to block creative capacity. This phenomenon undergoes rapid enhancement during adolescence and youth — with few exceptions, older people are no longer creative.'

"This very narrow approach to education is promoted by an overly cognitive view of humans. This same view is leading to a literal disassociation of mind and body. A recent issue of the Whole Earth Review (Summer 1989) was devoted to the question, 'Is the Body Obsolete?" Some of these authors believe that the human body can no longer cope with the information culture which is developing. They believe that in the not too distant future human brains will be downloaded into mobile robots. . . . Why do these people seem to be ready to abandon the body? Is it because they have simplified both the body and the brain? Does algorithmization contributed to our denigration of human potential?"
Fischer, John (1969). "Survival U: Prospectus for a Really Relevant University." Harper's
September, pp. 12-22. "Except for a few surviving church schools, no university even pretends to have a unifying philosophy. . . . Education was not always like that. The earliest European universities had a precise purpose: to train an elite for the service of the Church. . . . Any successful reform of American education . . . will have to be far more revolutionary than anything yet attempted. At a minimum it should be: (1) Founded on a single guiding concept — an idea capable of knotting together all strands of study, thus giving them both coherence and visible purpose. (2) Capable of equipping young people to do something about 'what is going on in the world' — notably the things which bother them most, including war, injustice, racial conflict, and the quality of life. ... I have come up with only one idea that might fit the specifications. It is simply the idea of survival. For the first time in history, the future of the human race is now in serious question.

". . . That would be the prime aim of the experimental university I'm suggesting here: to look seriously at the interlocking threats to human existence, and to learn what can we do to fight them off. Let's call it Survival U. It will not be a multiversity, offering courses in every conceivable field. Its motto — emblazoned on a life jacket rampant — will be: 'What must we do to be saved?' If a course can not answer that question, it will not be taught here. . • . Neither will our professors be detached, dispassionate scholars. To get hired, each will have to demonstrate an emotional commitment to our cause. Moreover, they will be expected to be moralists; for this generation of students, like no other in my lifetime, is hungering and thirsting after righteousness. What it wants is a moral system it can believe in — and that is what our university will try to provide. In every class it will preach the primordial ethic of survival.

"The biology department, for example, will point out that it is sinful for anybody to have more than two children. . . Its second lesson in biological morality will be: 'Nobody has a right to poison the environment we live in.' This maxim will be illustrated by a list of public enemies. At the top will stand the politicians, scientists, and military men — of whatever country — who make and deploy atomic weapons. . . . Only slightly less wicked, our biology profs will indicate, is the farmer who drenches his land with DDT.

". . .In like fashion, our engineering students will learn not only how to build dams and highways, but where not to build them. . . . Indeed, our engineering graduates will be trained to ask a key question about every contract offered them: 'What will be its effect on human life?'

"... Survival U's Department of Earth Sciences will be headed — if we are lucky — by Dr. Charles P. Park, Jr., now professor of geology and mineral engineering at Stanford. He knows as well as anybody how fast humankind is using up the world's supply of raw materials. . . . Survival U, therefore, will prepare its students to consume less. . . . Our students had better learn how to live The Simpler Life, because that is what most of them are likely to have before they reach middle age.

"... Our mathematics department will teach a new kind of bookkeeping: social accounting. It will train people to analyze budgets . . . with an eye not merely to immediate dollar costs, but to long-range costs to society.

"Its [the government class] main goal will be to discover why our institutions have done so badly in their efforts (as Dr. [Richard A.] Falk [of Princeton] put it) 'to manage the affairs of humankind in the 20th century.' ... We have no government capable of dealing effectively with public problems.

"... All these courses (and everything else taught at Survival U) are really branches of a single science. Human ecology is one of the youngest disciplines, and probably the most important. It is the study of the relationship between humanity and its environment, both natural and technological. It teaches us to understand the consequences of our actions. . . . Graduates who comprehend ecology will know how to look at 'what is going on in the world,' and will be equipped to do something about it. Whether they end up as city planners, politicians, enlightened engineers, teachers, or reporters, they will have had a relevant education. All of its parts will hang together in a coherent whole.

"And if we can get enough such graduates, humanity and its environment may survive a while longer, against all the odds."
Illich, Ivan (1987). "The Ritual Power of Daily Humdrum." Utne Reader, November/December, pp. 75-78. "Since about 1980 I've noticed a renewed interest in rituals among my American friends. Rituals, be they civic or religious, intimate or public, are once more on the agenda. . . . This new interest in ritual stresses actions that are above and beyond the daily chores, actions that are more than means to an end. But this focus on the sabbatical rather than the daily humdrum distracts us from seeing the myth-making power of modern technologies. Our modern technological society has as many rituals that define and shape its perception of reality as did the ancient Egyptians, medieval Christians or Amazonian tribal Indians — they're just not as obvious. Clock and car, TV set and computer, credit ratings and tax returns, diet charts and health tests all pattern our activities in a more or less rational way: We can give good reasons for looking at the time or at the news, for going to school or to a medical checkup. However, by doing so, we also dance to the polyphonic beat that comes from these many technologies. And, while ritual drumming once was a special event (the muezzin called the hour of prayer five times a day and the church bell in southern Europe called seven times) these modern technological drums never cease to beat, to reckon, and to force us into their rhythm (75).

"When our activities are patterned by the demands imposed by modern technologies, those activities can be viewed in two ways: as the disciplines we follow to achieve our goals, or as the rituals to which we dance add by which we absorb what the tools tell us. Most contemporary critics of technology study what tools do, not what they say. During the last two decades ecologists have stressed the effects of technology on the ecosphere;
sociologists have stressed that tools are not neutral, that they incorporate and reproduce ideologies. . . . However, the immense power of modern technology to indoctrinate those who are served by it has been largely neglected.
"For a couple of decades I have called attention to what modern institutions and techniques effectively say. In 1970 I wrote a book called Deschooling Society (New York: Harper & Row, 1971, excerpts from Chapter Three included here). It attracted a great deal of attention, but its central point, that compulsory education is a modern tool, or technology, that serves to ritualize 'progress,' was missed entirely. By looking more deeply into the role of contemporary education, and by examining the dissonance between what education does and what it says, we can see that the symbolic impact of modern technology is very different from the impact of ritual in other times (76)....

"School serves as an effective creator and sustainer of social myth because of its structure as a ritual game of graded promotions. Introduction into this gambling ritual is much more important than what or how something is taught. It is the game itself that schools, that gets into the blood and becomes a habit. A whole society in initiated into the Myth of Unending Consumption of services. This happens to the degree that token participation in the open-ended ritual is made compulsory and compulsive everywhere. School directs ritual rivalry into an international game that obliges competitors to blame the world's ills on those who cannot or will not play. School is a ritual of initiation that introduces the neophyte to the sacred race of progressive consumption, a ritual of propitiation whose academic priests mediate between the faithful and the gods of privilege and power, a ritual of expiation that sacrifices its dropouts, branding them as scapegoats of underdevelopment.
"The school system today performs the threefold function common to powerful churches throughout history. It is simultaneously the repository of society's myths, the institutionalization of that myth's contradictions, and the locus of the ritual that reproduces and veils the disparities between myth and reality. Today the school system, and especially the university, provides ample opportunity for criticism of the myth and for rebellion against its institutional perversions. But the ritual that demands the tolerance of the fundamental contradictions between myth and institution still goes largely unchallenged, for neither ideological criticism nor social action can bring about a new society. Only disenchantment with and detachment from the central social ritual and reform of that ritual can bring about radical change.

"Of course, school is not by any means the only modern institution whose primary purpose is shaping our vision of reality. The hidden curriculum of family life, health care, so-called professionalism, or the media play an important part in the institutional manipulation of man's [sic] world — vision, language, and demands. But school enslaves more profoundly and more systematically, since only school is credited with the principal function of forming critical judgment, and, paradoxically, tries to do so by making by making learning about oneself, about others, and about nature depend on a prepackaged process. School touches us so intimately that none of us can expect to be liberated from something else (76).

"Many self-styled revolutionaries are victims of school. They see even 'liberation' as the product of an institutional process. Only liberating oneself from school will dispel such illusions. The discovery that most learning requires no teaching can be neither manipulated nor planned. Each of us is personally responsible for his or her own deschooling, and only we have the power to do it. No one can be excused if he fails to liberate himself from schooling. People could not free themselves from the crown until at least some of them had freed themselves from the established church. They cannot free themselves from progressive consumption until they free themselves from obligatory school (76-77).

"Many people have awakened to the inexorable destruction that present production trends imply for the environment, but individuals have only very limited power to change these trends. The manipulation of men and women begun in school has also reached a point of no return, and most people are still unaware of it. They still encourage school reform, as Detroit proposes less poisonous automobiles (77).

"Daniel Bell says that our epoch is characterized by an extreme disjunction between cultural and social structures, the one being devoted to apocalyptic attitudes, the other to technocratic decision-making. This is certainly true for many educational reformers, who feel impelled to condemn almost everything that characterizes modern schools — and at the same time propose new schools (77-78).

"The capacity to pursue incongruous goals requires an explanation. According to Max Gluckman, all societies have procedures to hide such dissonances from their members. He suggests that this is the purpose of ritual. Rituals can hide from their participants even discrepancies and conflicts between social principle and social organization. As long as an individual is not explicitly conscious of the ritual character of the process through which he [sic] was initiated, until he learns to distinguish between what a technology does and what it says, he cannot break the spell and shape a new cosmos. As long as we are not aware of the ritual through which school shapes the progressive consumer — the economy's major resource — we cannot break the spell of this economy and shape a new one (78)."
Lee, Jung Young (1973). Cosmic Religion. New York: Harper Colophon Books, 109 pp. Book is endorsed by Harvey Cox, Alan Watts, & others. "The root of our ecological and existential problems is primarily due to the misrepresentation of our religious thinking in the West. It is the religious orientation which has shaped the attitude of Western people toward nature and God. Nature has become the counterpart of divine activity and the enemy of human perfection. A natural man [sic] is damned as a heathen, and an unnatural man is elevated as a civilized Christian. Man's domination over nature is encouraged as a virtue, and his retreat to nature is discouraged as a sign of disgrace. Thus the conflict between man and nature becomes inevitable. The separation of man from nature is eventually the separation from himself [sic], for he is part of nature. This separation of oneself, which creates the inner conflict, is the very root of his existential problems. Thus, our ecological and existential problems are inseparable. They are mutually interdependent. In order to deal with these problems, the religious orientation which has caused them must be reassessed.

"The failure of traditional religion in the West is mainly in the use of exclusive symbols for the inclusive God. The symbols of God such as the King, Lord, Master, Saviour etc. are personal names. By attributing personal names or symbols to God, the non-personal existence is almost completely neglected from the sphere of our religious thinking. The God who is excluded from the non-personal existence cannot be the Creator and Preserver of all things. Thus, God must transcend a personal category. . . . Cosmic religion transcends both personal and non-personal categories. . . . The cosmic God is a personal God to persons and a non-personal God to non-persons. The cosmic God is 'He' [sic] to men but 'It' to stones and trees. This kind of God transcends religions, creeds, nationalities, races, species, forms, qualities, space and time. Thus, cosmic religion which deals with the cosmic God, the God of the whole and for the whole, is essentially universal religion. . . .

"The most primordial symbol of God in the Judeo-Christian faith is found in Exodus 3:14, where God is known as 'I am what I am' or 'I become what I become.' 'That is,' as Suzuki said, 'a most profound utterance, for all our religious or spiritual or metaphysical experiences start from it.' The cosmic God is, then, the subject or the source of 'becoming.' The cosmos is constantly in the process of becoming, because change is the essential characteristic of cosmic process. . . . Cosmic religion is, then, based on the idea that everything changes into the process of becoming because of the cosmic God who is change itself (10-11)...»

"Silence is the voice of the Change. The Change speaks to man in silence. . . . The Change is not in the shouting voice of preachers. The Change is not found in the sound of Gospel songs. The Change is found in silence. In silence alone the Change communicates the depth of its mystery. The works of the Change are too subtle to produce a sound. It is too beautiful to be Church music. Silence transcends all for forms of voices (41)."

Martin, Everett Dean (1926). [The Meaning of a Liberal Education. Garden City, NY: Garden City Publishing Co. [After giving the example of a New England public school administrator who "in a burst of oratory proposed that adult education be made compulsory," Martin states:] "There can be no quantity production of things of the spirit."

Recer, Paul (The Associated Press) (1989). "Human Fate Is Now Up to Humans." [The State Journal-Register. (Springfield, IL), Thanksgiving Day, November 23. "In the decade of the 1990s, perhaps as never before, human fate rests in human hands. Few periods in history have presented such clear choices between promise and peril, and experts predict that civilization in the 21st century and beyond may well be shaped by global decisions made in the 1990s.

"Human beings now have the power to control their own fate to a degree that they've never had before," said Edward Cornish, president of the World Future Society. . . .

"'In 1986, the cluster of environmental problems was No. 3 on the list of fears,' said Michael Marien, editor of the Society's annual survey of trends. Now, he said, 'it has clearly become the leading problem area.'

"World Watch, an environmental research organization, agrees with the assessment."

Sullivan, Dennis (1972B). [Discussion Paper Submitted to the UNESCO Institute for Education, in Preparation for a Conference on "The Impact of Permanent Education on the Concept of Schooling and Curriculum Innovation" in Hamburg, Germany, 4-8 December. Cuernavaca, Mexico: Centro Intercultural de Documentacion (CIDOC). Available from Ohliger. "At just this moment, I think it is critical that we decrease the amount of education. Since there is just no way to answer those who ask for a "deschooled approach" to questions stated from standard educational premises, it becomes more effective to say simply: educate less. People must learn to live within bounds. This cannot be TAUGHT. Survival depends on people LEARNING fast what they can NOT do. They must learn to abstain from unlimited progeny, consumption and use. We all KNOW that the quality of life cannot be produced. If we acted consistently with this knowledge the waters of life could run their many courses, the tree of life could bear its many kinds of fruit. The light of wisdom cannot be produced."

17. Draves.,/William A (1989). "Adult Ed Growing with Older Adults," Adult & Continuing Education Today, Vol. 19, No. 12, June 5, 1989, p. 3. "'On October 23, 1983 adult education became the largest single sector of education in America,' says Malcolm Knowles, somewhat facetiously. Actually, he points out, that turning point was cited in the 1980 census data. Whatever the actual date, adult education's new status is recent, and one place where it is growing is with learning for older adults." . . .

"Giant Classroom" (1954). Time Magazine. Nov. 15, 1954, pp. 52-53. "Ben Franklin's group [The Junto] anticipated what had now become a national craze — the wholesale rush of Americans into adult education. ... In giving the folks more training . . . adult education has turned itself into a full-fledged profession. More important: it has a future that seems limitless. 'I predict,' says Malcolm Knowles, administrative coordinator of the Adult Education Association, 'that the education of adults will become accepted as a public responsibility, just as the education of children is now. ... In my opinion, the total budget for adult education of all types will eventually exceed the total expenditures for childhood education.' In other words, America will be the place where school is never out."

Merriam, Sharan B. & Cunningham, Phyllis M., eds. Handbook of Adult and Continuing Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989. Note the program areas covered in Part Three and Part Four include public schools, colleges, religious institutions, agricultural extension, the armed forces, correctional facilities, public libraries, museums, government agencies, proprietary schools, business and industry, community-based activities, public affairs education, adult basic education, adult secondary education, English as a second language, health education, continuing education for the professions, education for older adults, education for rural adults, education for women, education for racial and ethnic minorities, education for developmentally disabled adults, workers' education.

Ohliger, John (1985). "Are Adult Educators Really Whips?" Adult & Continuing Education Today, May 13, p. 80.

Ohliger, John (1989). You Shall Know the Truth and the Truth Shall Make You Laugh. Talk to the Prairie Unitarian-Universalist Society, Madison, WI, April 2, 1989.Available from Basic Choices. "Schooling of all types is rapidly emerging as the third reservoir for absorbing unemployment right after the military and the bureaucracy. The army of teachers and administrators increases daily. Time in school gets longer and longer as requirements grow for more qualifications and credentials in occupations and other aspects of social life. Thus, education hides massive unemployment and many other intractable social problems.

"But schooling for youth is only a relatively small part of the problem. Over half the adult population is now required to go back to school to keep jobs or professional licenses, to get promoted, to stay out of jail, to stay on the welfare rolls, or to remedy some defect. This forced adult schooling is what Ivan Illich calls 'the final solution of learning opportunities.'

"Adult education — and that's my field — is the invisible sleeping giant of American society. More money and personnel are devoted to it than to all other areas of education combined — elementary, secondary, and higher. One area alone, of hundreds in adult education — corporate training — involves as many dollars — over 60 billion of them — as are spent on all the instruction in America's colleges and universities. Besides the immense military training, there's the General Motors of adult education, the United States Agricultural Extension Service. And now, in the 20th "Century's Biggest Adult Education Effort," a half billion dollars has just been appropriated by Congress compelling a million so-called "undocumented aliens" to take citizenship classes.

"Even when attendance is not compulsory there's a frenzy about getting involved in adult activities that is so well illustrated by the many conferences and workshops that elicit the complaint of "seminar stiffness" from characters in Lily Tomlin's wonderful comedy The Search for Signs of Intelligent Life in the Universe."
18. Mumford quoted on dustjacket of: Sale, Kirkpatrick (1980). Human Scale. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan.
See Also: Fischer, (1969); Martin, (1926); and Sullivan (1972B); all above at #16.

Revised from the November 20, 1989 Issue

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Selected Articles by John Ohliger
New Additions
And the Truth Shall Make You Laugh
Billy Joel: The Fire, The Facts, and The Story
EDUCATION AND SOCIETY: A Portrait of The Student As an Old Man
EDUCATION AND SOCIETY: Have The Universities Taken Over Adult Ed?
EDUCATION AND SOCIETY: Quiz Presidential Candidates About the Literacy Issue
Education Summit Lacks Conviction
Hidden Hits
How Could There Be A Victory, If There Was No War
My New Year’s Resolution: Balancing Hope and Despair
Odds & Ends